Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacognostic Study of the Leaves of Piliostigma thonningii Schum (Ceasalpiniaceae)

Obi Patrick Ebele, Chukwujindu Chukwunonso Ebere, Onugwu Obinna, Uzor Ginikachukwu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i1130266

The existence of huge species and varieties of plants that bear resemblance in their macro-morphological features but differs in micro-morphology and phytochemical constituents has led to misidentification and replacement of one species/variety of plant for another. Hence, the need for standard documentation of the macro and micro morphological features, unshared and unique characters and phytochemical compositions of individual plant drug cannot be over emphasized. This research studied the pharmacognostic profile of Piliostigma thonningii Schum leaf using pharmacognostic tools for crude drug standardization such as macromorphological / organoleptic evaluation, qualitative and quantitative microscopy, analytical evaluation (physicochemical constants) and phytochemical screening. The results of the microscopical evaluation of Piliostigma thonningii leaf showed that it has actinocytic stomata on the upper epidermis, uniseriate trichomes and schizo-lysigenous cavities on the lower epidermis, reticulate and spiral xylem vessels and rosette shape calcium oxalate crystals. While the analytical standard of the powdered drug revealed 9 moisture content, 4.1 total inorganic ash, 2.2 water soluble ash, 0.85 acid insoluble ash, 4.8 sulphated ash, 13 alcohol extractive, 11.5 water extractive and 4.61% n-hexane extractive. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides and terpenoids. The overall results of this research can serve as reference standard for proper identification of Piliostigma thonningii plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Plasmid Profile Multiple Antibiotics Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Clinical Specimens in Healthcare Facilities across Anambra and Imo States Nigeria

Seraphim Chinyere Ifegbuike, Godwin Chukwuemeka Ojiegbe, Henry Chidozie Amah, Chizaram Winners Ndubueze, Joy Nkeiruka Dike-Ndudim, Emeka Simon Anikwo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 17-28
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i1130268

The emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistant plasmids of P. aeruginosa is posing a major public threat and huge concern in hospital facilities. This study was done across Anambra and Imo States with a total number of 100 P. aeruginosa isolates, 50 from each State to determine the plasmid profile of multidrug resistant isolates. Methods of re-identifying P. aeruginosa were based upon cultural methods coupled with biochemical tests. To study the susceptibility of these isolates using disk diffusion method, seven (7) antibiotics were used namely: Piperacillin–tazobactam (100/10 µg), Ceftazidime (30 µg), Amikacin (30 µg), Ciprofloxacin (5 µg), Cefuroxime (30 µg), Ceftriazone (30 µg) and Gentamicin (10 µg). Plasmid extraction was done using alkaline lysis method after growing isolates resistant to more than four antibiotics on a nutrient broth. Agarose gel electrophoresis of plasmid DNA was carried out on 2% agarose gel slab in 1X TAE buffer. The results show that, the nutrient agar at 37˚C aerobically, P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered, which produced greenish-yellow pigment colonies, oxidase was positive and negative for gram stain. In Anambra, the result showed 100% resistance to Cefuroxime, Ceftazidime and Ciprofloxacin, 90% and 86% for Ceftriaxone and Piperacillin-tazobactem, 48% and 40% to Gentamicin and Amikacin respectively. Whereas in Imo state, the result showed 100% resistance to Ceftazidime and Ciprofloxacin, 80% to Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime and Piperacillin-tazobactem while the least resistance was seen in Amikacin, and Gentamicin. Plasmid size ranging from 100bp to >1000bp was detected from most of the multidrug resistant isolates. Not all the isolates with multidrug resistance were found to possess plasmids. It can be seen from this study that multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa is not strictly plasmid-dependent (mediated).

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of In vitro Quality Parameters of Different Brands of Marketed Ciprofloxacin Tablets Available in Bangladesh

Mst. Mahfuza Rahman, Khurshida Akter, Masudur Rahman, Jinat Fatema Sharna, Amitav Lahiry, Mir Imam Ibne Wahed

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i1130269

Aim: Ciprofloxacin is a broad‑spectrum antibiotic under the group of drugs called fluoroquinolones. It is extensively being manufactured and marketed drug by many national and multinational pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of different brands of ciprofloxacin 500mg tablets available in Bangladesh using quality characteristics such as weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, disintegration time, and dissolution profile.

Methodology: The tablets' overall quality criteria, such as weight variation, hardness, thickness, diameter, friability, disintegration time, and dissolving profile, were evaluated using established protocols. An electric analytical balance was employed to measure weight variation. An automated hardness tester was used to determine the hardness, thickness, and diameter. A friabilator was used to determine the degree of friability. A disintegration equipment and a dissolution tester were used to examine the disintegration time and dissolution profile, respectively.

 Results: In this study, all the values were compared with the standards. All brands had been passed for the weight variation test, because no tablets surpass the ± 5 % weight variation. The weight variation range was from 714.57±4.08 mg (brand C) to 837.92±7.49 mg (brand E). In hardness testing procedure, all brands of ciprofloxacin 500mg tablets were within the specified limit. The average hardness of the items ranges from 11.11±1.44 kgF to 19.26±2.20 kgF respectively. The five brand's percentage friability was less than 1%, indicating that they met the requirements. The lowest friability (0.015 %) was found in Brand E, while the highest friability (0.032 %) was found in Brand B. Within 10 minutes, the entire trademark had disintegrated, indicating that they had met the requirements. Brand E had the quickest disintegration time (5.35±0.49 minutes), while brand B had the slowest (9.12±0.88 minutes).All brands had a dissolution rate of 83.56% for A, 95.84% for B, 91.15% for C, 84.46% for D and 88.97% for E, all those were within 60 minutes in dissolution testing. The five brands' assay was within the specified limit, indicating that they met the requirements

Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study of evaluating quality control parameters revealed that all of the leading brands of this tablet comply the quality control parameters as per pharmacopoeial specifications. Further work is recommended on bioequivalence of these tablets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Chenopodium Quinoa Extract on Diazepam Induced Memory Impairment in Animal Models

M. Ganga Raju, Triyasha Mondal, N. V. L. Suvarchala Reddy V., M. Anila

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 39-52
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i1130270

Aim: The present study explored the pharmacological and insilico studies of ethanolic seed extract of Chenopodium quinoa.

Materials and Methods: The screening of in vivo anti- amnesic activity of the ethanolic seed extract of Chenopodium quinoa was carried out using Actophotometer and Rotarod apparatus. The extract exhibited active constituents like myristic acid, palmitic acid, eicosadienoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, tocopherols, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, quercetin, benzoic acid, kaempferol, arachidonic acid, benzofuran and 2-bromodecanoic acid. In silico approaches like docking studies (Mcule software) and Ramchandran plot (procheck), online softwares were used in the study to establish mechanism of action of active constituents present in the extract.

Results: The extract treated groups at doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, bd.wt) showed significant anti-amnesic activity. The basal activity score in actophotometer is as an indicator for impairment of learning and memory. Fall of time by rotarod is used to evaluate learning and memory in rodent models of CNS disorders as in case of amnesia. The results revealed that quercetin, kaempferol, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stigmasterol, lenolenic acid, pentadecanoic acid, tocopherols, arachidonic acid and standard donepezil have got highest glide scores against selected Protein Data Bank (PDB ID): 1EVE, 2FY4, 7CUM and 3EJ8. According to Ramachandran plot a good quality model would be expected to have over 90% in the most favoured region. Proteins like PDB ID: 1EVE, 2FY4, 7CUM and 3EJ8 showed almost 80-90% favoured region which clearly indicates that the selected proteins in the present study are of good quality.

Conclusion: Our research unveiled that ethanolic seed extract of Chenopodium quinoa possessed significant anti- amnesic activity.

Open Access Review Article

The Effects MTHFR Gene Mutations on Vitamin B12 Concentration in the Blood; Bioinformatics Approach – A Review

Hassan Sadek Darwish, Sara Maram Khan, Jamal Badshah, Jomana Hussein, Shahad Almshlib, Wasan Abdelkarim

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i1130267

Introduction: The protein encoded by MTHFR gene catalyzes the conversion of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Genetic variation in this gene influences susceptibility to occlusive vascular disease; neural tube defects, colon cancer and acute leukemia. Also, mutations in this gene are associated with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.

Methods: NCBI bioinformatics database application was used to search for MTHFR gene. Protein sequences were converted into DNA and mRNA. Protein sequences were analysed into DNA and mRNA. It includes information about the accession number, the number of amino acids in the protein product, the number of exons and the length of nucleotide. Also, nucleotide sequences and mRNA were included in FASTA format. Additionally, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) was used to compare the sequences of this gene in humans with other organisms like mouse.

Results: Human MTHFR gene can be studied through [Pan Troglodytes (chimpanzee)]. Hyperhomocysteinemia leads to several health problems including cardiovascular disease, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and pregnancy complications.

Conclusion: There is a relationship between MTHFR gene and vitamin B12 levels. Mutation in MTHFR gene has negatively impact vitamin B12 levels and methylation pathway, which affects the conversion process of homocysteine to methionine. Therefore, several health complications are caused by the observed increases in the levels of homocysteine.