Phytochemical, Biochemical and Biological Evaluation of Five Herbal Bitters Sold in Pharmacy Shops in Eastern Nigeria
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Aim: This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of five herbal bitters and their potential effect on body weight, lipid profile, hematology, liver and kidney functions of albino rats.
Methods: Five brands of herbal bitters (Goko Cleanser®, Ruzu Bitter®, Yoyo Bitter®, Swedish Bitter® and Beta Cleanser®) were tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. Antimicrobial activity was evaluatedby agar diffusion method. The weights of the animals were taken before treatment, and on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 post treatments with the herbal bitters. Blood levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, PCV, haemoglobin, AST, ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine were measured.
Results: Glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, steroid, saponins, phenolic compounds were present while reducing sugar, amino acid and hydrogen cyanide were absent in the five bitters. All the five bitters showed moderate to potent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in body weight and a significant increase in catalase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase activities. There was also a significant reduction in total cholesterol and an increase in HDL. The PCV of the treated animals increased significantly while the haemoglobin was not affected significantly. The liver and kidney functions were not significantly altered.
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Goko Cleanser®, Ruzu Bitter®, Yoyo Bitter®, Swedish Bitter® and Beta Cleanser® possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and may help to reduce body weight and hypercholesterolemia.