Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of the Extraction of Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity from Lippia multiflora Moldenke (Verbenaceae) Leaves using Experimental Design

Emmanuel N’Dri Koffi, Yeboue Koffi François Kouakou, Bleouh Yves Nyamien, Roland Kouadoueu Deli, Louise Atchibri Anin

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i830250

The leaves of Lippia multiflora contain secondary metabolites including flavonoids which have an important antioxidant activity. This study aims to optimize the extraction conditions of total flavonoids and the antioxidant activity of these leaves. To achieve this, the Plackett-Burman design was used for the screening of the factors influencing the extraction, then the central composite design was implemented for the optimization itself. The effects of five factors, such as the plant-to-solvent ratio, the nature of the extraction solvent, the extraction time, the extraction method and the size of the L. multiflora leaves, on the extraction of total flavonoids and the antioxidant activity were studied. Results of Plackett-Burman design indicated that factors influencing both flavonoids extraction and antioxidant activity were the solid-liquid ratio and extraction time. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest flavonoids content from  L. multiflora leaf with better antioxidant activity were found with aqueous decoction for 30 min with 3.5 g of cut leaves in 100 mL of distilled water. Using the predicted conditions, experimental responses were 87.18 ± 1.03 mg/g QE and 372.34 ± 4.04 µmol/g TE for total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental results are very close to predicted one. Thus, L. multiflora leaf can be considered as a natural source of flavonoids content with good antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

People's Knowledge and Practice of Salt Iodization, as Well as the Assessment of Iodine Content in Salt in the Cumilla Region of Bangladesh

Sadia Jahan, Md. Saddam Hossain, Md. Anisur Rahman Bhuiyan, Susmita Roy Lisa, Somaia Haque Chadni

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 12-24
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i830251

Aim: To evaluate the household iodine content and knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding salt iodization among the residents of Cumilla, Bangladesh.

Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 700 inhabitants in Cumilla's urban and rural areas to determine the iodine concentration of salt they consume. The participants were asked about what they know about iodine deficiency and salt iodization as well as how their salt was packaged and stored. Among them, 338 people provided a sample of salt to be tested of its iodine content by the titrimetric method.

Results: 46.57% of people knew that iodization was the best way to prevent iodine deficiency while 35.14% considered salt iodization during purchasing. Most people stored salt in plastic boxes (89.7%) and closed containers (84.14%).Among all participants, only 37.14% of people were aware of the iodine requirement during pregnancy.

In urban regions, the median iodine content was 36.76 ppm (OR=0.658, 95% CI, 0.469-0.925), while in rural areas, the median iodine content was 40.92 ppm (OR=1.188, 95% CI, 1.022-1.380). Iodine levels were less than 15 ppm (minimum limit) in 6.8% of samples and greater than 40 ppm (maximum limit) in 56.5%. Only 36.7% of the salt samples contained adequate iodine.

Conclusion: An effective and consistent approach for controlling iodine concentration in distributed salt is required at Cumilla, Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. And Ziziphus mucronate Lam. Extracts

Salamatou Mohamadou, Bayoï James, Djoulde Darman Roger, Nodem Sohanang Francky Steve, Tatsadjieu Ngoune Leopold

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i830252

The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of leaf and bark extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana and Ziziphus mucronata. For this purpose, an extraction by maceration using ethanol was carried out and the extracts were subjected to antibacterial activity assessment through qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative tests were performed using agar well diffusion method while for quantitative tests minimal inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal concentration (MIC, MBC or MFC) were used determined through microdilution in microplates method. The antimicrobial mechanisms such as cell lysis and action on the proton pump of the extracts were also studied. The highest extraction yield was obtained with the Z. mauritiana leaf extract (28.8%). In addition, the highest contents of polyphenols (256.6 mg GEA/g DM) and flavonoids (165.2 mg CE/g DM) were obtained with the bark of Z. mucronata. The bark extracts of Z. mauritiana exhibited highest antibacterial activity (36.7 mm on Staphylococcus aureus) while, Z. mucronata extracts are more active on fungi, with the highest activity on Candida albicans (26.7 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the extract increases with the concentration and, regarding the MBC/MIC and MFC/MIC ratio, the extracts showed bacteriostatic activity on the different bacteria and fungi and the possible mechanism included an activity on the proton pump. The bark and leaf extracts of Z. mauritiana and Z. mucronata could be used in traditional medicine to treat infections due to these multiple pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methanol Extract of Azanza garckeana Fruit Pulps Protects against Formalin-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Adult Albino Male Mice

Bukata B. Bukar, Faith Ezeh, Sunday Y. Sabo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 38-49
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i830253

Introduction: The aqueous extract of Azanza garckeana was recently reported of exhibiting ameliorative and pro-fertility properties however the protective effects on formalin testicular toxicity have not been studied.

Objective: This study investigated the protective effect of methanol extract of Azanza garckeana on formalin-induced testicular toxicity.

Methods: Forty male albino mice were randomly divided into 8 groups of 5. Animals in the first group (1) served as control and administered normal saline (1 ml/kg) by the oral route daily for 40 days. In similar manner, animal in groups 2 received formalin (10 mg/kg) by the IP route, while animals in groups 3; 4 and 5 concurrently received formalin (10 mg/kg IP) and extract at doses of 125; 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively by the oral route. Mice in groups 6; 7 and 8 received the extract at doses of 125; 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively. Phytochemical analysis was conducted for each constituent using specific methods. Gonadotropin and sperm analysis were carried out using standard methods.

Result: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various constituents, but notably flavonoids. Induced-toxicity with formalin and concurrent treatment with extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg from day 20 to 40 caused significant body weight increase compared to baseline (p < 0.05).  Similarly, treatment with the extract alone at all doses caused significant increase in body weight from day 20 to 40 (p < 0.05). Treatment with the extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg, caused a significant increase in weight of testes and epididymis compared to control and untreated group (p < 0.05).The extract induced significant increase in gonadotropin levels of animals compared to control and the untreated group (p < 0.05).The extract at 125 mg/kg demonstrated the highest fecundity potential, but there was no any consistent relationship between GSI and fecundity.

Conclusion: This investigation was able to establish the protective and pro-fertility potentials of methanol extract of Azanza garckeana.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Synthetic Chrono Genetic Therapy Gene for Consecutive Drug Delivery

Maryam Anosh, Zukhruff Majeed, Nida Qamar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 50-60
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i830254

Chronotherapy, the delivery of therapeutic interventions personalized to patient's circadian rhythms, has shown enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced side effects. Patients exhibit diurnal changes in cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis that lead to inflammatory flares and enhanced disease severity in the early morning. There has been important work showing the administration of anti-inflammatory treatments in the early morning, immediately before the inflammatory flare, in reducing symptoms of RA. Using synthetic biology, we developed chronotherapy-based gene chromogenic therapies that produce our prescribed transgene downstream of the core circadian clock component, Per2. We transduced these lentiviral chromogenic therapies into murine-induced pluripotent stem cells and developed tissue-engineered cartilage as our model system for timed drug delivery. Our anti-inflammatory chromogenic could produce interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in an oscillatory manner tracking with circadian rhythms in vitro. Additionally, the tissue-engineered pellets could entrain host circadian rhythms when implanted into mice and produce different levels of IL-1Ra in the serum at other times of the day. The chromogenic synthetic gene provides a novel cell therapy driving by the circadian clock for controlled biologic delivery at prescribed times of the                      day.