Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Xylopia aethiopica Pod Extract on Reproductive Hormones in Female Wistar Rats

C. G. Okonkwo, H. A. Ogbunugafor, A. A. Oladejo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i730244

Plants and their metabolites have been used in the treatment of various disease conditions from time immemorial. This study investigated the effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of pods of Xylopia aethiopica on reproductive hormone (follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone) in female Wistar rats. Thirty female wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of six animals per group, per cage (n=6). Group A served as the normal control group and was administered distilled water while group B served as positive control and was administered 5 mg of standard drug (Clomid-Clomiphene Citrate). Groups C, D and E served as the treatment group and was administered 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg extract of X. aethiopica respectively for seven days. Administration of drugs and extract was done via oral route. The rats were thereafter copulated with their male counterparts for 72 hours and the female rats were observed throughout their gestation and the numbers of litters produced were recorded. The hormonal assay was carried out using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Result showed a significant increase in FSH and Progesterone level (p<0.05) in treated group when compared with the control group while no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed for the luteinizing hormone in the treated groups. The work thus showed that the plant could exert a positive effect on female fertility by enhancing levels of female reproductive hormones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Risks and Ramifications of the COVID-19 Pandemic by Community and Healthcare Providers in Nepal

Nilam Bhandari, Dikshya Maharjan, Muna Silwal, Damaru Prasad Paneru, Anant Nepal

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 18-28
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i730246

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has inflicted real suffering in many parts of the world and is expected to impact different sectors. Lockdown is considered to be an effective measure in slowing the spread of coronavirus. The study expects to understand community and healthcare providers’ perspectives on COVID-19 and pandemic responses during and after the lockdown in Nepal.

Methods and Materials: Data were collected through telephone interviews with six representatives of community-based organizations and nine healthcare providers, and the collation of information about COVID-19 from social media, news outlets and government announcements. Data were thematically coded and analyzed according to the themes.

Results: Although rapid dissemination of educational information through various social media was found, people reported an information overload on COVID-19 while questioning the authenticity of their sources. Several misbeliefs on the COVID-19 virus are rooted in the Nepalese community. Lockdown for a longer period was deemed an unsustainable preventive measure that directly impacted the income source of daily-wage workers. The fear of contracting coronavirus among healthcare providers at their workplaces was further triggered by the poor working conditions and non-availability of personal protective equipment (PPE). In fighting the pandemic, screening and management of other health issues were ignored.

Conclusion: The prevention measures against COVID-19 are important for the local context, however, the communities need access of basic commodities and access to reliable information to enable them to follow these measures. Availability of  appropriate PPE for the healthcare providers is required to reduce the fear of contracting the virus from the patients and workplace. Essential health-care services must also be continued to help reduce excess mortality and morbidity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pharmacist Home Visits on Weight Control in Overweight Elderly Hypertensive African American Patients: Managing Your Blood Pressure (My Bp) Program

Ivy O. Poon, Kimberly Pounds, Aisha Morris-Moultry, Terrica Jemerson

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i730249

Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of a home-based pharmacy intervention on body mass index (BMI) in a cohort of older hypertensive overweight African American (AA) patients. 

Design: A secondary analysis of data collected in a community-based intervention study.

Setting: Community-based.

Participants: AA patients, ≥ 65 years old, residing independently, with hypertension diagnosis and BMI ≥ 25.

Interventions: During a 6month period, patients received 1) two in-home pharmacist-led consultations on weight management, 2) bi-weekly telephone counseling, and 3) health education strategies.

Main Outcome Measures: BMIs at baseline and 6 months; stages of behavioral change in diet and exercise based on the Transtheoretical Model.  

Results: At baseline and 6-month follow-up, a total of 153 participants had BMI ≥ 25 and received a completed assessment of behavioral stages. Participants’ mean age was 74.2 years. A reduction of BMI from 31.7 (obese) at baseline to 29.8 (overweight) at 6-months (p=0.0008) was observed. For every stage of improvement in diet, there was a reduction of 1.24 points in BMI (p=0.008). For every stage of progress in exercise, there was a reduction of 0.77 points in BMI (p=0.013).

Conclusion: Pharmacists-led in-home consultations coupled with telephone follow-ups and health education strategies may improve lifestyle and lower BMIs in this cohort. Further studies are needed to investigate these strategies on weight management in geriatric patients with chronic illnesses.

Open Access Review Article

Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Stroke in Patients with COVID-19 Infection: A Review

Sidra Shahid Mubasher, Humera Batool, Emen Udo Kierian, Khatja Batool

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i730245

In the current pandemic, it is imperative to comprehend and advance a search forward to explore the pathogenesis of stroke in COVID-19 infected patients. In this review, we have discussed the prevalence of stroke in COVID-19 infected patients and different risk factors associated with the stroke in COVID-19. We also presented a comprehensive review on management of Stroke Patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 positive patients with stroke should be treated in a designated COVID-19 health care center as per the guidelines. Study also showed that older patients with a history of cardiovascular diseases, prothrombotic state, smoking, and infection significantly had a higher likelihood of stroke incidence. The study revealed that effective treatment of COVID-19 and reduction of the inflammatory conditions may seem to be the way forward to minimize the symptomatic stroke associated with COVID-19 infection, and rehabilitation of Stroke patients should be optimal during a pandemic.

Open Access Review Article

Brief Review on Future of Medicine: Nanorobots

Shravani Girigosavi, Payal Oak

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 29-42
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i730248

Nano-robots are the robots that are the technology of creating machines or robots close to the microscopic scale of a nanometre (10-9meters). These devices range from 0.1 – 10 micrometres. Nano-robots are the advances in technology. The technology has expanded our capability and potential to operate the world around us on above removing scale. Nano robots can be used in various application such as space and medicine technology. Nanos robots are device is used for motive of nourishing, keeping and protecting the human body opposing antibody, microorganisms, pathogens. Nano robots are instrumental by using various components such as actuators, sensors, control, power, conveying and by affiliating cross – marked scales between organic and inorganic systems. Nanotechnologies are quickly arising within the nation of medicine, and this subdivision has been termed Nano medicine. Application for nanorobotics in medicine including diagnosis and drug delivery for cancer, tissue engineering, pharmacokinetics, dental surgery, ophthalmology and others. This region of work is fulfilled with prospective and possible applications, many of like that recently animating researched and evolution. The objective of this paper is to introduce the expanding sector of nanorobotics inside in medicine and advancement in medical application.