Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Non-Communicable Diseases and Risk Factors among Final Year Students in a Tertiary Institution

A. K. Ghazali, F. A. Ayeni, D. E. Effiong

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630239

Background and Objective: Chronic or non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly emerging as leading causes of morbidity and premature mortalities globally, with greater effect  being felt in low and middle income nations. As poor health behaviours practised in youthful years have been implicated in developing NCDs in later years in life, It is important to understand the level of awareness of young people regarding NCDs in order to remedy any knowledge gaps and encourage healthy practices among them that will reduce the burden  of these diseases in later life. This  study  seeks  to  describe the knowledge of two groups of final year students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria on the awareness and knowledge of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors.

Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey at the University of Lagos, Nigeria during the 2017/2018 academic session. A sample size of 422 final year students were used with convenient stratification. Self administered questionnaires was distributed to the class of  students who consented to participating in the study. The questionnaires were used to assess the level of awareness of the students of non communicable diseases and their risk factors. Data obtained from the questionnaires was analyzed using SPSS version 21.

Results: A result of 94.7% was obtained. The results show 89.5% versus 65% of students in health related discipline (college of medicine campus) and those in Akoka campus respectively had good knowledge of NCDs and their risk factors while 10.5% versus 35% had poor knowledge.

Conclusion: Students in the campus of college of medicine had more knowledge of NCDs and their risk factors. Campus location of students had statistically significant relationship with awareness and knowledge on NCDs. (p, <0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Ulcer Activities of Methanolic Extract of Musa Paradisiaca

Omoirri Moses Aziakpono, Chukwuemeka Charles Ofili, Mbata Uchenna Chisom, Uyovwiesevwa Ataihire Johnson, Olusola Ayobami John, Mbata Chinedu Sylvanus, Mba Ogbonnaya, Nwosu Gloria Chizoba, Orji Uchechukwu Harrison

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630240

Musa paradisiaca (plantain peel) is useful in prevention and control of numerous health problems in Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine. The anti-ulcer activity and effects of varied dosages of its methanolic extract on gastrointestinal motility were investigated in this study. Fifteen (15) Wistar rats of 150 and 200 g were deprived of food for 24 hours; then divided into five groups (Groups I through V) of three rats each; while group I (control) received 5ml/kg of distilled water, groups II, III and IV received 100 mg/kg of indomethacin (ulceric), 5mg/kg of omeprazole (after inducing ulcer), and 200 mg/kg of M. paradisiaca respectively. After inducing ulcers with indomethacin, Group V animals were fed (orally) with 400mg/kg of extract. Oral administration of ethanol injured the mucosal lining, resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding with ulcer indexes of 13.30, 10.57, 10.62, and 9.01 in groups II to V respectively, after some time of administration of test substances. In addition, the test statistic (using ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc) on the Omeprazole and 400mg/kg extract treated groups showed a substantial protection of 8.60% and 21.27 % respectively; whereas, the Omeprazole and 400mg/kg extract treated groups had a substantial protection of 8.60% and 21.27%, respectively. Between the omeprazole, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of extract treated groups, there was a statistically insignificant increase (p 0.05) in gastro-protective activity. However, gastro-protective effect was statistically significant (p 0.05) at larger doses of the extract. The ulcer index decreased significantly (p 0.05) between the negative control and treatment groups, according to the findings. However, with 400mg/kg body weight of the extract, the percentage gastro-protective action was higher than in the omeprazole-treated group. We advocate using a similar extract on other platforms to back up this study's efforts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Effects of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Bryophyllum pinnatum (Oda Opue) Leaves Extracts on Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Infected Wound Samples

M. I. Izundu, C. O. Anyamene, E. A. Kyrian- Ogbonna, O. R. Umeh, I. U. Nwiyi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630241

Aim: to study the antimicrobial effects of different leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica and Bryophyllum pinnatum on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wound.

Study Design: This study was done to determine inhibitory effects of extracts on S. aureus isolated from infected wounds.

Place and Duration of Study: General hospital Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria, January to March 2020.

Methodology: wound swabs were collected from 30 patients with infected wound. S. aureus were isolated and identified morphologically and biochemically. The leaves were collected, identified and grinded. Extraction of the leaves were done using soxhlet method with two solvents (ethanol and water). Phytochemical compositions were analyzed using standard methods. In vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts and their combination were evaluated.

Results: Phytochemical analysis of extracts showed presence of saponins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides and phenols except B. pinnatum aqueous extract that showed presence of flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Among the extracts analysed, A. indica ethanol has highest zone of inhibition against S. aureus with 20.00±0.00 mm at 1000 mg/ml concentration. B. pinnatum ethanol 10.33±0.58 mm at 1000 mg/ml, A. indica aqueous extract 13.33±2.08 mm but B. pinnatum aqueous extract has no inhibitory effect. The combination of A. indica aqueous and B. pinnatum ethanol extracts, B. pinnatum and A. indica ethanol extracts and A. indica ethanol extract and B. pinnatum aqueous extracts have inhibitory effects on S. aureus except combination of A. indica aqueous and B. pinnatum aqueous which has no inhibitory effect. The result of MIC was 500 mg/ml and the MBC showed 1000 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The extracts of B. pinnatum and A. indica possess antimicrobial properties for S. aureus and the plants are available and are planted worldwide. There is also need for research on other plants with antimicrobial effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Readiness for Drug Information Service Provision in Community Pharmacies in Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria

Sunday Olajide Awofisayo, Imoh Emmanuel Udoh, Jessica Imeh Awofisayo, Matthew Ikhuoria Arhewoh

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630242

This study was aimed at assessing the readiness for drug information service (DIS) provision at community pharmacies in Akwa Ibom state using a cross sectional, observational study approach. A pretested, validated questionnaire was adapted for the study. A total of 187 premises were enlisted for visits with questionnaires targeted at the superintendent pharmacists for desired responses. Response rate was 93.6%. Respondents were male (77, 44%) and female (98, 56%) with mean years of experience of respondents as 18.7 years. All respondents were aware of DIS terminologies and believed the concept to include enquiries on dosing (75%), side effects of drugs (99%), safety of drugs in cases such as pregnancy (79%), drug route of administration (80%), pill identification (66%) and substitutes to requested drugs (78%). Responses to limitations in discharging efficient DIS include non-trending service style (26%), premises requiring restructuring (26%), prohibitive setting up cost (17%) and non-availability of trained personnel (7%). At the time of this study, available resources for DIS in the premises included reference books (90%), periodicals (19%), and internet access through smart phones (60%). Secondary and tertiary sources of drug information were essentially relied on for DIS provision in the study area. There was significant association between socio-demographic characteristics such as age with readiness status (p<0.05). There was poor in-service training for effective DIS provision. Summarily, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the DIS approach across the state. There is need for improvement in facilities and resources for efficient discharge of DIS in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Potentials of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn Stapf Twigs in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Marcella Tari Joshua, Edna O. Wachuku, N. Boisa, Nsirim Nduka

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 36-46
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630243

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant effects of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn. Stapf. Twigs in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

Study Design: The study is an experimental case-controlled study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Biochemistry Research Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between June, 2018 and April, 2019.

Methodology: A total of 65 male albino rats that weighed between 150g to 200g were used for this research study. Three different extracted solvents; aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic twig extracts were administered to different groups of the rats. The male albino rats for this study were induced with a single dose of 40mg/kg b.wt, intraperitoneally of streptozotocin in 0.1M of citrate buffer, pH 4.5. The diabetic male rats were those whose fasting blood glucose (FBG) were from 250mg/dl or 13mmol/L and above. They were then divided into different groups and treated with different concentrations of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the plant material. At the end of treatment period, the rats were kept on fasting for 6 hours prior to the process of euthanasia, they were sacrificed and blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for analysis into lithium heparin bottle for the estimation of oxidative stress markers, malondaldehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAS). Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad prism (version 6.1) software. Data generated were represented as mean and standard deviations (Mean ±S. D). Level of significant at Tukey’s Multiple Comparative Test was tested at p<0.0001. Charts were made possible with the application of Minitab version 2019.

Results: The results showed that there were significant increases in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, 414.2±1.30) ng/ml, total antioxidant status (TAS, 82.97±7.71) mU/ml, total oxidant status (TOS, 355.02± 14.02) mU/ml activity, a reduced oxidative stress index of 4.29±0.26 and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA of 18.67± 0.26mmol/L) when rats were treated with 400mg/kg of aqueous leaves of Morus mesozygia Linn. S. When compared with those of rats treated with 200mg/kg of aqueous leaf extracts of MMLS. there was a significant increases and decreases respectively. Other methods of extractions (methanolic and ethanolic), also improved the antioxidant statuses of the diabetes induced and treated rats after treatment of the extracts.

Conclusion: The three extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn. S showed tremendous antioxidant effects against Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, with the methanolic extract showing the most potent effect.