Open Access Original Research Article

Disruption of Ovarian Utilisation of Proteins by Tetrapleuratetraptera Fruit Extract Impairs Estrous Cycle and Ovarian Functions in Female Rats

Ologhaguo Macstephen Adienbo, Ogechi Stephanie Ezeala

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i430228

Aim: Reports that some phytochemicals interfere with reproductive functions, in both humans and animals necessitated this study which is aimed at determining the effects of fruit extract of Tetrapleuratetrapteraon oestrous cycle and ovarian functions in females.

Methods: Adult female wistar rats weighing 160-180 g with regular 4-5 days oestrus cycle were selected into 4 groups of 6 animals each. Group 1 (control) administered 1ml distilled water; groups II, III and IV were daily treated with the extract at doses 75 mg/kg, 150mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively, orally for 21 days. Microscopic evaluation of vaginal smear was done daily to determine the various stages of the estrous cycle, their duration, as well as the estrous cycle length. After 24 hours of last administration, each rat was weighed, sacrificed, and right ovary was homogenised and the homogenate used for analyses of total protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, according to standard protocols.

Results: There was significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus phase and estrous cycle length in all the extract-treated groups, compared to control animals. Also, there was relative reductions in the duration for proestrus (p<0.05), estrus (p<0.05) and metestrus (p<0) phases of the cycle, with a relative increase in duration for diestrus phase (p<0.05) in animals treated with 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively. In addition, a significant (P < 0.05) increase was observed in ovarian Protein, and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity; as well as significant (P < 0.05) reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and in weight gain in the test animals, compared to the control.

Conclusion:Tetrapleuratetrapterafruit extract disrupts ovarian utilisation of proteins in the ovaries, thereby impairing oestrous cyclicity, and body weight. These could result to infertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Toxic Effect of D-alletrin Based Mosquito’s Coil on the Lungs and Selected Haematological Parameters of Adult Wistar Rats

A. E. Anyabolu, D. N. Ezejindu, B. N. Obinwa

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i430229

The effect of inhaling mosquito coil smoke on the haematology and histology of rat’s lungs was studied. Mosquito coils while slowly burning emit smoke containing one or more insecticides, each coil burns for several hours and are used in close proximity to persons requiring protection against mosquitoes in order to prevent malaria, a disease of wide distribution. This study is aimed at determining the effects of mosquito coil on lungs of adult wistar rats. A total of 16 adult wistar rats were used in this study weighing 100g – 200g. They were randomly divided into four groups of four rats each. Rats in group 1 served as control and received only food and distilled water; while the experimental groups II – IV were exposed to mosquito coil smoke for 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours respectively for a period of 28 days. At the end of the experimental period, blood was collected from each rat through ocular puncture for blood analysis. The rats were sacrificed with the lungs harvested and fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological analysis. The body weight of the exposed groups observed showed insignificant decrease when compared with the control group. The organ weight of lungs showed significant increase when compared to the control group. Haematological analysis for blood obtained revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in Hb, PCV, RBC and WBC counts in all exposure groups when compared with the control group. Histological analysis of the lungs showed severe hemorrhage and severe inflammation of the lungs. Results from this study demonstrates that mosquito coil smoke not only challenges the immune system but also affects the blood oxygen regulation level through damage in the lungs.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 in the Eyes of Community Leaders in Selected Rural Districts in Eastern Uganda

Abdul Walusansa, Jacob S. Iramiot, Joseph L. Mpagi, Ali Kudamba, Shaban A. Okurut, Aidah Namuli, Godfrey Wasige, Hawa Nabuuma, Hussein M. Kafeero, Muhammad Lubowa, Jamilu E. Ssenku

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 20-37
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i430230

Introduction: Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is one of the topmost global hindrances to human existence. Rural settings have been reported to be more vulnerable in some parts of the world. In Uganda, community leaders in rural villages are among the immediate personnel mandated to support compliance with preventive guidelines, and to identify and report/deliver COVID-19 cases to health units. We examined the potential risks of COVID-19 transmission, knowledge levels, perceptions and opinions of Village Council Leaders (VCLs) in selected districts in Eastern Uganda, to support the design of risk-based COVID-19 control measures in rural settings, to protect lives better.

Methodology: A convenience sample of ten VLCs were purposively selected in three districts in Eastern Uganda. Pretested questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to assess the knowledge levels, perceptions, and opinions of respondents about COVID-19. An observational survey was also conducted to examine the barriers to effective control of COVID-19, with reference to health guidelines set by the Ugandan government and the World Health Organization. Data was analyzed using HyperRESEARCH 2.8 software, and STATA version-15.0.

Results: Eighty percent of VCLs reported that they were formally engaged in the fight against COVID-19, and the common means of engagement were; dissemination of COVID-19 information by word of mouth, regulation of public events, and monitoring of visitors that come from distant places. All clients reported having received some information about this pandemic, but there was generally low knowledge on some vital aspects: 70% of the respondents did not know the meaning of COVID-19; 100% were uninformed on these common symptoms; headache, sore throat, nausea, and loss of taste & smell; 10% did not know if willingness to conform to health guidelines may affect COVID-19 prevention, and they believed that domestic animals are viable vectors. Radio was the commonest source of COVID-19 information, but it was confounded by poor quality of radio-signals. Most respondents were of the view that in the communities they lead; inaccessibility to authentic health information, financial constraints, and belief that COVID-19 is a fallacy, were some of the leading obstacles to the fight against the pandemic. Low awareness and misconceptions on COVID-19 could be explained by; technological challenges, low literacy levels, and dissemination of wrong information about this pandemic. From the observational survey, the major factors which might intensify the risk of COVID-19 spread were: scarcity of requirements for hand hygiene, face protection, violation of health guidelines and directives, porous borders, terrain, and use of potentially polluted open water sources.

Conclusion: Communities in Eastern Uganda are vulnerable to the drastic spread of COVID-19 due to challenges related to: low awareness, poor compliance with preventive guidelines, finances, technology, terrain, illiteracy, scarcity of protective wear and hygiene resources. Awareness creation, material aid, execution of preventive rules, and more research on COVID-19 are warranted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic and Hepatorenal Effect of Ocimium gratissimium in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Igwe Gloria, Nsirim Nduka, G. Tamunoemine Davies, Brown Holy

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i430231

Diabetes Mellitus is a disease of public health concern which is caused by pancreatic defect in insulin secretion or failure of the receptor cells to effectively utilize secreted insulin. Diabetes account for 2-3% death in the poorest countries hence the need for alternative control measure. This stud evaluated the hypoglycemic and hepatorenal effect of Ocimium gratissimium and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Twenty- four rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 4 animals in each group (1,2,3,4,5 & 6), groups 2,3,4,5 & 6 were induced diabetes intraperitoneally with 150 mg\kg alloxan (Sigma Ltd), diabetes was confirmed by fasting blood glucose of >10.0mmol/L. Groups 3,4,5 & 6 were subsequently treated with 400 mg/kg of extract, 5mg glibenclamide, 800 mg/kg of extract, 400 mg/kg extract combined with 5mg glibenclamide respectively. Blood glucose, hepatic function variables (Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase(ALT), Total bilirubin (TB) and renal parameters Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Urea were analyzed. The result shows an increase in glucose, hepatic and renal parameters in diabetic induced groups which was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner in the diabetic treated groups, the high dose of the extract (800mg/kg) was more effective in blood glucose reduction than the standard antidiabetic drug, (5mg glibenclamide). However, 5mg glibenclamide was found to be more effective in blood glucose reduction than the low dose (400mg/kg) extract, the combination of 5mg glibenclamide and 400mg/kg was found to be more effective in blood glucose reduction than the low dose extract. A significant increase was observed in the Total bilirubin and urea parameters of the high dose (800mg/kg) of the extract treated groups and in the combined group (400 mg/kg+5 mg glibenclamide). When compared to the low dose extract group(400mg/kg). Low dose ocimium gratissimium potentiates 5mg glibenclamide in blood glucose reduction. Ocimium gratissimium and glibenclamide decreased blood glucose and ameliorates alloxan induced hepatic and renal damage. The use of the high dose of the extract and the use of the combination of the drug (5mg glibenclamide) and the low dose of the extract in diabetes management may be detrimental to the liver and kidney according to this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Do Gender and Place of Residence Affect the Tutorial Scores of Medical Students? A Preliminary Study Conducted in a Private Medical School, Jakarta- Indonesia

Forman Erwin Siagian, Lusia Sri Sunarti, Gracia Jacqueline Rieny Tuamelly

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 49-55
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i430232

Introduction: Medical students are future doctor candidates. They must learn about diseases, infectious and non-infectious, during their education period. What the students have to learn is being packaged in integrated blocks. Tutorial is one of the Problem Based Learning (PBL) methods in medical education whose activities are entirely learner-centered. It is a focus group discussion (FGD) based activity, consist of 7-8 students and supervised by one lecturer called tutor who will provide an assessment at the end of each session. The aim of this study is to characterize whether gender and place of residence affect the student’s tutorial score.

Methods: This retrospective cross sectional study conducted from April to May 2021 at the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta-Indonesia. All data of active students gathered from education manager office. Simple descriptive statistic operation conducted whenever necessary. Data about place of residence obtained electronically using simple G-form survey.

Result and Discussion:  Data comes from 607 active students were eligible for further analysis. Total mean of tutorial score based on their batch (2017, 2018, 2019, 2020): 15.53; 16.24; 15.82 and 15.06. The highest mean tutorial score is 16.34 in the group of female students who live in their own home from the class of 2018 and the lowest score is 14.74 in the group of male student who live in the boarding house from the class 2020.

Conclusion: Female students have a higher mean tutorial score compared to male students, and those who live at home with their parents also have a higher average score than those who live in a boarding house, by themselves. As our students become more senior, the better their tutorial scores.