Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Quercetin in Adult Patients as a Potential Nutraceutical against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Juan Fernando Ibarra Aguilar, Gabriela Ariane Sanabria Báez, Fernando Galeano

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i330222

Aim: To establishing the use of oral Quercetin as a potential nutraceutical against Coronavirus Disease 2019.

Methods: A descriptive, prospective longitudinal study was carried out on 52 patients treated at the ECOMED-LAMB Clinic, in the period from the onset of Covid-19 in our country, March 3, 2020 to January 2021.

Results: Were studied 52 patients COVID-19 positive, 20 (38.4%) were in preventive treatment and 32 patients (61.5%) was administered biological therapy once the diagnosis, no difference was found between female or male sex and the predominant age was those over 60 years. Twenty-four patients (70.6%) have presented at least one comorbidity.

The association of hospitalization with preventive treatment was not significant (p=0.166), we observed difference in the evolution of the patients (p= 0.084).

Conclusions: Quercetin could prevent and decrease the duration of SARSCoV-2 infections, it is plausible to propose the prophylactic use of this flavonoid in order to achieve clinical benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Potential of Five Kenyan Medicinal Plants

Mukhwana Dennis Wafula, Ayieko Cyrus, Mweresa Collins, Ingonga Johnstone, Matoke-Muhia Damaris

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 8-17
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i330223

The present study was conducted to evaluate preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant activities of five plants (Olea europaea, Kigelia africana, Terminalia mollis, Croton macrostachyus and Bridella micrantha extracts). The plants were collected from Baringo County in Kenya, dried, pulverized into fine powders and extracted using methanol. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, aminoacids and proteins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenoids. The root extracts were further investigated for their potential antioxidant activity by using radical scavenging DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) technique. Methanol extract of roots from the plants showed significant differences in DPPH radical scavenging activities. The results were concluded that extracts have a more secondary metabolites and potential source of antioxidants, which is warranty to evaluate further in vivo pharmacological studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal Potentials of Ocimum gratissimum Linn Leaf Extract against Lead Acetate Disruptions in Rat Hippocampus and Electrolyte Concentration

Ubi Essien Isaac

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i330224

The present study determined the effect of Ocimum gratissimun Linn. leaves aqueous extract on lead-acetate alterations in the hippocampus and serum biochemical concentration of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions in animal models. Twenty male and female albino rats weighing around 155 g were randomly distributed to four groups, (n=5 each). Group A served as control, B received 500 mg/kg body weight of O. gratissimum leaf extract, C was administered 150 mg/kg of lead acetate, and group D was given both lead acetate and the named leaf extract at doses of 150 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively. Treatments were given once daily via gavage and lasted 15 days while the animals had access to feed and water ad libitum. The rats were euthanized on the 16th day by cervical dislocation; the cranial cavity was carefully exposed and the brain dissected to excise tissue specimens from the hippocampus for histological studies. Blood samples were also collected through cardiac puncture and then centrifuged to obtain serum used for the biochemical parameter. The one-way Analysis of Variance was the statistical tool used to evaluate the differences in concentration of the electrolytes, and data was expressed as means ± SD, while P< 0.05 was taken as a significant value. The results showed the extract to have a mitigating effect by alleviating lead-acetate induced histopathological distortions of the hippocampal pyramidal neurons and by counteracting the neurochemical alterations in brain electrolyte ion. The findings of this research therefore indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of O. gratissimum has anti-toxic properties and may therefore be explored by pharmaceuticals in search of alternative treatment for lead poisoning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub Fruit Extract Impairs Reproductive Hormones and Fertility Parameters in Female Experimental Rats

Ologhaguo Macstephen Adienbo, Ogechi Stephanie Ezeala

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i330225

Aim: The increasing rate of infertility in humans has necessitated the need to assess commonly used medicinal plants to ascertain their effects on reproductive functions. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tetrapleura tetraptera fruit extract on reproductive hormones and fertility in females.

Methods: A total of seventy two (72) adult female wistar rats weighing 160-180 g were randomly assigned into four groups of 18 animals each. Group1 (control) was administered distilled water, groups II, III and lV were daily treated with the extract at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight, respectively, orally for 28 days. Thereafter, 6 rats from each group were sacrificed during oestrous phase and serum used for analyses of reproductive hormones; while remaining 12 females from each group were each cohabited with males (2:1), sacrificed at gestational age16 and fertility parameters were determined.

Results: The results show that in the test groups, there was significant (P < 0.05 ) reduction in the levels of FSH, LH and Estrogen, with a significant (P < 0.05 ) increase in progesterone, when compared with the control. Also, the number of pregnant female rats, number of foetuses, and fertility index significantly (P < 0.05 ) increased in the test animals, compared with the control.

Conclusion: We concluded that Tetrapleura. tetraptera fruit extract impairs reproductive hormones and fertility parameters in female rats, and therefore should be consumed with caution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Renal Safety of Direct Acting Antivirals in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

Islam Ashram, Mohammad Saleh

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i330226

Objective:Direct acting antivirals (DAA) is a class of antivirals that hasbeen extensively used in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients over the past 6 years.Despite the excellent therapeutic benefits of DAA, there is a knowledge gap regardingthe safety of this class. Several reports of possible renal toxicity associated with DAAadministration can be found in the literature. The aims of this study are: to assess therenal safety of DAA used for the treatment of chronic HCV infection and to quantify the odds ofdeveloping renaltoxicityin patients withchronicHCV viralinfection.

Study Design: Disproportionalityanalysiswasusedtodetectsignalsofpotentialsideeffects.

Place andDuration: Amman –Jordan,One year study since September 2017 to march 2018.

Methods: The method that was applied in the current study is obtaining the data from United States (US) food and drug administration(FDA)adverseeventreportingsystem(FAERS).DatabetweenJuly,2014andSeptember,2017werecombinedandexplored.Disproportionalityanalysiswasconducted to reports from chronic HCV patients to explore possible association betweenDAA administrationand renalsideeffects.

Results: This study showed that a total of 3,837,418 safety reports were available in the period between July,2014 and September, 2017. Patients with chronic HCV infection represent 22,022 cases.When considering all DAA as drug of interest, the use of DAA alone or in combinationwith interferon and/or ribavirin did not increase the risk of having renal side effects.Exploring individual DAA demonstrated a significant association between the incidenceofrenalsideeffectsandtheadministrationoftelapreviranddasabuvir.ConsideringrenalsideeffectsindividuallyshowedasignificantassociationbetweenDAAadministrationand chronickidney disease.

Conclusions: In this study, we reported a significant association between DAA administration andchronic kidney disease and between telaprevir or dasabuvir and renal side effect. Thesefindings are used for hypothesis generation rather than testing.