Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Characteristics and Pharmacological Properties Studies of the Powders of Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) Leaves from Seven Regions of Burkina Faso with a View to Standardizing

Salfo Ouédraogo, Tata Kadiatou Traoré, Benjamin Ouedraogo, Boladé Constantin Atchadé, Adjaratou Coulibaly, Marius Lompo, Sylvin Ouédraogo, Rasmané Semdé

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i130212

Introduction: Punica granatum is a plant used in traditional and alternative medicine for the management of several diseases.

Objective: The objective of the present work is to compare the phytochemical characteristics and the antioxidant properties of extracts of leaves powders of Punica granatum L. collected for standardization.

Methodology: We worked on seven samples of powders of leaves of Punica granatum L collected in seven different regions of Burkina Faso. Two types of extracts, aqueous and hydroethanolic were prepared with each sample. We performed a phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC), then determined the content of the various extracts in total phenolic and flavonoids as well as a study of the antioxidant activity of the aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts of the plant.

Results: Fourteen extracts of Punica granatum are obtained and these contain secondary metabolites such as tannins, sterols, triterpenes, saponosides and flavonoids. The anti-free radical activities at the DPPH* were more important in the samples from the towns of Dedougou, Banfora and Fada. The anti-free radicals at ABTS of extracts from the towns of Manga, Banfora, Fada and Kaya were found to be the most active. The FRAP test shows better activity of samples from the cities, Manga, Dedougou and Banfora.

Conclusion: At the end of this work, the towns of Dedougou and Banfora may be the sites to be favored as harvesting sites because their samples were the richest in phenolic compounds and had the best antioxidant activities compared to the tests carried out.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepato-Renal-Curative Effect of the Herbal Supplement of Aloe vera Linn Gel versus Moringa oleifera on Acetaminophen-Induced Damage on the Liver and Kidney of Wistar Rats (Rattus novergicus)

Chukwunyere Ogechi Abaekwume, Hope Delesi Kagbo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i130213

Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) is the most frequently used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic drug. Conversely, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. Several scientific reports have focused majorly on protective effects of medicinal plants on APAP –induced hepato-renal-toxicity. actually, there is a dearth of work on the hepato-renal-curative effects of the herbal drugs supplements on APAP induced toxicity.

Aims: In the present study, Aloe vera (ALOV) gel versus Moringa oleifera (MORN) leaf supplement effects was evaluated curatively against Acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepato- renal-toxicity. 

Study Design:  This study was an experimental study in the Animal House of the Department of Pharmacology University of Port Harcourt. The work lasted for 7 days.

Methodology: Twenty adult wistar rats weighing 185-220 g were divided into four (4) groups of five (5) animals each and treated orally as follows: group 1(normal control) received distilled water (7days), group 2 received 1 g/kg acetaminophen (APAP) (2 days), whereas group 3-4  received APAP (2 days) followed by 500 mg/kg of ALOV and MORN supplements respectively for 5 days. At the end of the experiment, animals from different groups were anaesthesized, the liver and kidney tissues were dissected and blood collected subjected to different biochemical, antioxidants, and histopathological test.

Statistical Analysis: was done using One-Way Anova followed by Tukey’s Post-hoc Test.

Results: APAP caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in creatinine with significant (P<0.01) increase and decrease in liver enzymes and renal catalase levels respectively in relation to normal control. Treatment of rats with the ALOV and MORN supplements attenuated the elevated liver and kidney biochemistry as well as improved histopathological alterations by APAP treatment.

Conclusion: The supplements demonstrated restorative ability. MORN and ALOV supplements extract can be suggested as a convincing remedy against APAP-induced hepato-renal-toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiplasmodial Activity of Seed Oil of Moringa oleifera (Lam.)

Dada, Ebenezer Oluyemi, Abdulahi, Sikiru Kayode

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i130214

The study was carried out to determine the antiplasmodial activity of seed oil of Moringa oleifera extracted using n-hexane solvent.

Acute toxicity test was carried out on twelve albino mice grouped into 3 according to seed oil concentrations (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg respectively) with each group having four mice. Thirty-five mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei and the mice were randomized into five groups of seven mice each (groups A, B, C, D and E) for antiplasmodial activity. Group A - negative control (non-treated), group B - positive control (chloroquine treated); group C (800 mg/kg), group D (400 mg/kg) and group E (200 mg/kg) of seed oil of Moringa oleifera. All groups were left untreated until after five days when 0.2 mL treatment dose for each group was administered. Treatment was carried out in four days and left for another five days for post treatment effect.

The acute toxicity test showed that the seed oil of Moringa oleifera was safe and nontoxic to all mice. There was daily gradual reduction in PCV values; however group with the highest suppression of parasitemia had the highest PCV value after treatment. Group A as expected had the lowest PCV value of 22.23±1.98% which fell short of normal range (40 - 55%) and had its parasitemia load increased by 205% while in other groups, B, C, D and E the parasitemia had decreased by 100%, 97.02%, 90.48% and 67.65%respectively after treatment.

Overall, the seed oil of M. oleifera at high concentrations showed a competitive parasite inhibition activity when compared with the result obtained in positive control group; however, few deaths recorded during and after treatment called for further investigation to determine its suitability for the treatment of malaria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Common Mental Disorders Using the SRQ-20 in Medical Students from Porto Velho-RO, Brazil

Rosely Valéria Rodrigues, Antônio Carlos Oliveira, Christopher Harrison Salomão Andrade, Israel Carlos Cavalcanti De Lima, Vitor Marcelo Frez Marques, Wilyan Dias Cosmo De Oliveira, Wudson Henrique Alves De Araújo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 33-45
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i130215

Aims: To investigate the prevalence of common mental disorders among medical students at the Federal University of Rondônia Foundation.

Study design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, Federal University of Rondônia Foundation (UNIR), in October 2019.

Methodology: Cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2019, using a questionnaire adapted with the Self-Report Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20). Sample: 116 students, 56 females and 60 males, from different periods completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of positive results in the SRQ-20 and the variance of positive responses were verified.

Results: The prevalence of positive results for the SRQ-20 was estimated at 69.8% (95% CI 61.0-78.6; 81 cases). No difference was found in the proportions of positive results for the variables analyzed (p >.05). There was no significant association between the calculated prevalence ratios and the factors analyzed (p >.05). The symptoms related to the reduction in vital energy showed the highest average amount of positive responses (76 [± 10.4]; p <.01).

Conclusion: The prevalence of positive results for the SRQ-20 observed in our study was much higher than the average reported for Brazilian medical students. The number of students who said they thought about suicide was also high. We understand that these findings reinforce the need for the development and implementation of medical students' mental health care programs to identify, monitor, and, if possible, adequately treat these cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demonstration of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (Mic) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration(Mbc) of Both Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium Extracts Mixture against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli

Ajirioghene A. Obroh, Ifeanyi O. Oshim, Oluwayemisi Odeyemi, Evelyn U. Urama, Nkechi A. Olise

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i130216

Background: Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium have many nutritional values that contain bioactive components such as alkaloids, saponin, tannin, steroids and terpenoids, as  antimicrobials.           

Objective: The general purpose of this study was to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimal bactericidal concentration(MBC) of both Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium  extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli.

Method: This is laboratory experimental research involving post test only control group design using the Kirby Bauer dilution method. With treatment combination of Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium extracts concentration ranging from 50-200 mg/ml and positive control (gentamycin).

Result: Mininum bacterial concentration was found between 6.25 mg /ml – 12.5mg /ml for Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium extracts while minimum inhibitory concentration of Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium was found between 12.5 mg / ml – 25.0 mg/ml respectively. U-Mann whitney results showed that the value of p < 0.05 were significant. In this study, the Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest inhibition zone diameter compared to other isolates.

Conclusion: The results from this work affirms the use of Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium as antimicrobials and emplores the attention of pharmaceutical companies to exploit production of antibiotics for treatment of infections resulting from Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus isolates.