Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Advanced Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with the Administration of Renadyl Capsule: A Single Center Pilot Study in Bangladesh

Tanjina Rahman, Sampurna Guhathakurta, Akibul Islam Chowdhury, Fahmida Karim Munni, Harun Ur- Rashid, Shakib Arefin, M. Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad Asadul Habib

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i1030195

Background: Chronic kidney diseases become a public health concern as the rate of this diseases is increasing. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in key biomarkers in Bangladeshi CKD stages IV and V patients by using Renadyl capsule.

Study Design: Open label randomized placebo controlled clinical trial.

Methods: Data were collected from patients with CKD stage IV and V in 2017, in an out-patient setting in Kidney Foundation Hospital and Research Institute, Bangladesh. Patient’s information, medical history and clinical data were also collected. Health condition of the patients was collected by using SF-36 QOL questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 23.0.

Results: Administration of Renadyl capsule improved the clinical and biochemical data of the patients. Renadyl administration improved the filtration rate, kidney size, creatinine level, heart rate and liver function. Patient’s physical and mental health was also improved.

Conclusion: Renadyl administration appeared to be safe among chronic kidney patients with improved kidney function. However, more clinical trials are suggested to determine the efficacy and effects of Renadyl.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnopharmacological Study of Plants Used against Malaria by Traditional Healers in the Department of Bouna, North-Eastern Côte d'Ivoire

Koffi Akissi Jeanne, Tano Konan Dominique, Kangah Orphée Michelle Alerte, Rasmane Na Ahou Kaddy, Ehoulé Kroa, Dable Marius Trésor, Yavo William

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i1030196

Mosquitoes have developed resistance, hence the need for anti-malarial medicines. This resistance calls for therapeutic an interest to therapeutic alternatives, including the medicinal plants. An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted amongst 15 Traditional Healers, recommended by the National Program for the Promotion of Traditional Medicine using semi-structured interviews in the city of Bouna. The ethnobotanical survey conducted in 2019 has enabled the identification of 32 plant species belonging to 30 genera and grouped into 19 families. The most represented families were Fabaceae (5 species) Anacardiaceae (4 species), Annonaceae (3 species), Rubiaceae, Zingiberaceae, Asteraceae, and Combretaceae with 2 species each. The species were mostly trees (63.63%). Leaves were the most frequently used parts of the plants (44.4%). The results of our investigations show that the most used mode is the decoction (42.22%). The oral route (60%) is the most used mode of administration. These species complete the non-exhaustive list of medicinal plants that the populations of Cote d'Ivoire use. It was found out that, people in this area commonly use medicinal plants with trust they have built on the curative outcome witnessed. However, this creates a further work to test for the antiplasmodial activity and to develop of Traditional Improved Medicines (MTAs).

Open Access Original Research Article

Low Plasma Iron Levels Associated to Drug Treatment in Polymedicated Patients: A Case-Control Study

R. Lozano, A. Frutos, A. Apesteguía, A Martinez, M. E. Franco, M. A. Alcazar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 23-28
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i1030197

Aim: To identify the drug class and/or duration of treatments causing hyposideremia.

Study Design: Retrospective case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Internal Medicine and Pharmacy, Aragón Health Services Services Hospital Real de Nuestra Señora de Gracia, between January 2019 and December 2019.

Methodology: The records of prescripted medicines of all patients admitted to Internal Medicine  service, for various indications, along a 1-year period (2019), which were  ultimately analized according to association with hyposideremia.

Results: It was identified several drugs associated with low plasma iron levels: acetylcysteine and apixaban, which would increase the risk of hyposideremia. On the contrary, we found that allopurinol, duloxetine and simvastatin would protect against the appearance of hyposideremia.

Conclusion: Acetylcysteine and apixaban, alone or in combination with different pathologies, would be capable of inducing, and on dependence of the duration of treatment and/or of the concomitant pathology, hyposideremia, iron deficiency and, in certain cases, anemia constituting a major health problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Sea Foods Directly from the Creeks in Rivers State, Nigeria

Ibioku Elekima, Raphael B. Edookue, Nengi F. Pepple, Aminayanate M. Aworu, Adline E. Ben- Chioma

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 29-39
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i1030198

To assess and compare the levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, in common seafoods (mudskippers, periwinkle and Shrimp) consumed in Rivers state obtained from different creeks of Rivers State Nigeria.

Study Design: Commonly consumed seafoods in Rivers State: Periopthalmus barbarous (mudskipper), Pandalus borealis (shrimp) and Tympanotonus fucatus (periwinkle) were collected at 5 different occasions from each of the study location (creek): Eagle Island, Iwofe, Bodo and Borokiri creeks in Rivers State. Eagle Island and Iwofe creeks are in Obio/Apkor and Degema LGA respectively, Borokiri Creek is in Port Harcourt LGA while Bodo creek is located in Gokana LGA.

Study Area: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University between the periods of June, 2018 – March, 2019. Samples of seafoods were collected from Bodo, Eagle Island, Borokiri and Iwofe creeks of Rivers State for 5 times at interval of 30 days between the periods of June, 2018 – October, 2018 during the wet season.

Methodology: Periopthalmus barbarous, Pandalus borealis, and Tympanotonus fucatus were collected from Eagle Island, Iwofe, Bodo and Borokiri creeks. The samples were correctly labeled, dried in an oven at 80°C, ground to powdered form then sieved to attain homogenous particles. Each sample was weighed, recorded and the concentrations of metals in the samples were determined. Two (2) grams each of the ground samples were weighed and put into a beaker with 6mls of nitric acid (HNO3) which was added as oxidizing acid to break the sample matrix and 2ml of perchloric acid as a reagent with 2 mls of de-ionized water was added to blend it. The sample was place on a heating mantle at 105°C until the sample volume reduced to two third of its original volume, the sample color clear and turns yellowish and its entire component was digested. The concentration of HMs: lead, arsenic, cadmium and mercury in the digested seafood samples were analysed using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentration of HMs from the sample were determined from the absorbance calibration in parts per million (ppm) or mg/kg dw.

Results: The bio-concentration mercury and arsenic in the selected seafoods from the creeks were below the World Health Organization permissible limits while levels of cadmium and lead in the seafoods in the order of periwinkle>mudskipper>shrimp collected from these creeks were above the FAO/WHO permissible limits of 0.5 1.0 mg/kg dw and 2.0 mg/kg dw respectively.

Conclusion: Mudskipper, periwinkle and shrimp were observed to bio-accumulate HMs beyond FAO/WHO permissible limits. Toxicities of these HMs in humans could induce several clinical derangements and eventually death if drastic measures are not put in place to stop or limit these anthropogenic activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antischistosomal Activity of Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir (Labiateae) Leaves Aqueous Extract and Derived Fractions against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

Mérimé Christian Kenfack, Hermine Boukeng Jatsa, Nestor Gipwe Feussom, Emilienne Tienga Nkondo, Ulrich Membe Femoe, Christelle Dongmo Tsague, Etienne Dongo, Paul Désiré Djomeni Dzeufiet, Pierre Kamtchouing, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuente

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i1030199

Aims: Treatment against schistosomiasis relies on praziquantel. Its treatment failure and the possible development of resistant schistosomes strains have been reported in the literature. Clerodendrum umbellatum leaves are used in Africa for the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract and derived fractions on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms.

Methodology: Five male and five female Schistosoma mansoni adult worms were incubated in each well for 48 h in a GMEM culture medium with C. umbellatum aqueous extract (125 to 4000 µg/mL) or its n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions or the aqueous residue (62.5 to 2000 µg/mL). The main parameters assessed were the worm’s mortality and the reduction of motor activity. Phytochemical screening of all our tested substances was also performed. The cytotoxicity assay using mouse melanoma liver cells line was performed on the aqueous extract and on the most active fraction.

Results: Our study shown that C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract and its derived fractions promoted worm mortality. The aqueous extract disclosed a LC50 of 805.21 µg/mL while the LC50 of the methanol fraction was 343.10 µg/mL. With this lowest LC50, the methanol fraction from C. umbellatum aqueous extract was therefore the most active. Moreover, it showed low level of toxicity on hepatocytes. Incubation of worms with C. umbellatum aqueous extract and fractions also resulted in a significant reduction of the motor activity of survival worms with a 39.54 to 100% reduction after 48h. The phytochemical screening of C. umbellatum aqueous extract and fractions revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the in vitro activity of C. umbellatum aqueous extract and derived fractions on S. mansoni adult worms and could then justify its empirical use to combat schistosomiasis.