Open Access Original Research Article
Background and Objectives: Antibiotic resistance has become a global encumbrance in the field of medicine. Various factors like antibiotic abuse, overuse or irrational usage of antibiotics, over the counter availability of antibiotics etc., have been put forth as accused leading to antibiotic resistance. The present study aims at evaluating the knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotic usage and antibiotic resistance among undergraduate students in private universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Methodology: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based quantitative survey conducted among undergraduate students in private universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh including 1st year to 4th year from different academic background. The questionnaire comprised of: Demographic data; Knowledge including 17 questions; Attitudes including 16 questions and practices consisting of 8 questions. Majority of the questions were dichotomous (Yes/No type) and some questions were asked using five point Likert scale. SPSS version 22.0 software were used in order to analyze data obtained from respondent’s. Association among categorical variable were analyzed with Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc Bonferroni test. Responses were presented using descriptive analysis, with chi-square tests to identify factors associated with Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance and the Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient calculated to examine the relationship between responses to the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questions.
Results: Total number of students from 1st year to 4th year were 244 who had given voluntary consent and participated in this study willingly. The sample comprised more males (56%) than females (44%), the average age of respondents was 21.9±1.5 years and almost 60% of respondents were from allied health science (Pharmacy, Microbiology, Public health, Botany, Zoology, Biotechnology, Biochemistry etc) background. Respondents had relatively good knowledge about aspects of antibiotic use and antibiotic role other than perception on antibiotic resistance. The concept of antibiotic resistance was well familiar but imperfectly understood.
Statistically significant (p=0.03) results have been obtained for the correct responses of knowledge questionnaire. Spearman rank order correlation revealed a positive association between each pair of the knowledge, attitude and practice scores for respondents (p = < 0.05). The correlation was good between knowledge-attitudes and attitudes-practices and fair between knowledge-practices.
Conclusion: The study provides baseline evidence about the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance among the undergraduate students in private universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh including 1st year to 4th year from different academic background. The findings of the study will be useful in designing effective and targeted interventions to decrease misconceptions about antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance and to increase awareness about the risks of overuse or inappropriate use of antibiotics.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: Intermittent fasting have been reported to have beneficial effect, in that it improves gut microbiota and lowers inflammation. This research is, however, targeted at evaluating the healing effects of fasting on ulcerative colitis in rats.
Study Design: A total of eighteen Wistar rats were used for this study, and were divided into three major groups; animals that were neither induced with colitis nor fasted (group 1), animals with colitis and were allowed to fast (group 2), animals with colitis but were not allowed to fast (group 3).
Place and duration of study: Department of Physiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, between March, 2020 and July, 2020
Methodology: The weight of the 18 animals used was 180 ± 20 g. Colitis was induced by a single dose of intra-rectal administration of 1mL/100g body weight of 6% acetic acid. Animals in group 1 served as control animals. Animals in group 2 were only given access to food between 4:00 p.m and 6:30 p.m, whereas animals in group 3 were given food and water ad libitum. Animals were sacrificed ten days post colitis induction. Colonic levels of Tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNFα), Glutathione (GSH) concentration, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were measured. The blood glucose level in the animals was also recorded by the use of a glucometer.
Results: There was a reduction in the concentration of TNFα and GSH, an increase in CAT and SOD activities in the colitis animals that were allowed to fast when compared with colitis animals that were not allowed to fast, ten days post colitis induction. There was also the lowering of blood sugar level, all signifying the beneficial effect of fasting on chemically-induced colitis. Thus, intermittent fasting helped the animals to heal from chemically-induced colitis.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: This study aims at determining the upper and lower extremity injury pattern and severity of motorcycle accidents in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana.
Methods: A retrospective hospital-based study comprising data on 190 motorcycle accident victims at the Accident and Emergency Centres of three major hospitals (Tamale Teaching Hospital, Central and West Hospitals) in Tamale metropolis from February to April 2018. Demographic data, injury type, injury location, use of crash helmet and injury outcomes were retrieved from the medical records registry. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test and One-way ANOVA test was done to compare groups.
Results: From the 190 victims, 78.9% were treated and discharged, 17.4% were disabled and 3.7% died. Injury mechanism was significantly (F-test = 22.64, p = 0.00) linked with injury outcome. Victims who had frontal impact collision and died (71.4%) were significantly (p<0.05) more than those who were treated and discharged (26.7%). Accident victims with upper extremity injury who became disabled (18.2%) were more (p<0.05) than those treated and discharged (16.7%). Out of the 190 victims involved in motorcycle accidents, 64.2% were not wearing crash helmet. There was significant relationship (p<0.05) between use of crash helmet and injury outcome. More (23.0%) of accident victims disabled were not wearing crash helmet and among those who died, none (0.0%) had a crash helmet on.
Conclusion: Upper and lower extremity injuries as well head and neck injuries were high among motorcycle accident victims. The study recommends capacity building for healthcare professionals to manage head, neck, upper and lower extremity injuries at the Accident and Emergency Centres. Regular training programs should be conducted by law enforcement authorities in northern Ghana to train motorcycle riders and educate them on road traffic regulations. Compliance to the use of crash helmet by motorcyclists should strongly be enforced. Further prospective studies are needed to delineate these injury patterns and ascertain reason behind non-usage of crash helmet by motorcyclist in the Metropolis.
Open Access Review Article
Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infections with more than 30 million confirmed cases are increasing rapidly, requiring urgent and safe treatment. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a virus responsible for the infection of COVID-19. Metformin (M) is a biguanide drug used as a first choice for the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, it is safe and currently available. It is speculated that metformin can be used for T2DM patients with COVID-19, because in addition to its hypoglycemic effect, this biguanide also shows many beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory effects and cardiopulmonary protection especially by angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) targeting. Therefore, the reasons for the use of metformin in COVID-19 patients were discussed in this study. Metformin has a promising role in treatment of COVID-19 in T2DM and obese women patients.