Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate Using Full Age Spectrum Equation to Assess Kidney Function in Hypertensive Patients: A Cross-sectional Study

Balkar Chand, Lovleen Bhatia, Kanchan Vohra

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i730180

Background: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is accepted as the best indicator of kidney function and commonly assessed from serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin C (Cys-C) based equations. The present cross-sectional, observational study aimed to assess eGFR using a new and validated Full Age Spectrum (FAS) equation and compared with eGFR assessed using old and established equations in hypertensive patients.

Materials and Methods: Overall, 60 subjects were recruited for the study, including 30 hypertensive patients and 30 age and sex matched healthy subjects. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured using commercial biochemical kits. These levels were used to derive and compare eGFR using our different equations, namely, Cockcroft and Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI), and FAS equation. Student t-test was used for comparison between two groups and One-way ANOVA test was used to find multiple comparison with-in the hypertensive and control group. Pearson’s Univariate correlation followed by multiple linear regression analysis was applied to find independent predictors of eGFR. All data were analyzed using Sigma-Stat.

Results: There was significant difference found in the eGFR levels using different equations in hypertensive subjects as compared to healthy subjects (P<0.01). With–in hypertensive subjects and with-in heathy subjects, a significant difference was also reported (both P<0.01). For FAS-based GFR, age was found as independent predictor of eGFR by all FAS equations. eGFR estimated using Cr based equations resulted in significant difference in categorizing number of subjects into CKD v/s non-CKD depending on their eGFR levels. But there was no difference found for the above in serum cystatin C based equations (P=0.26).

Conclusion: Present data showed that eGFR derived using all set of equations resulted in variable eGFR levels. But, use of Cr based equations instead of Cys-C or combine Cr-Cys based equations resulted in wide variation i.e. change in GFR due to change in marker.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analgesic Effects of Vigna unguiculata subsepecies dekindtiana in Mice

Adekunle T. Adegbuyi, Moses A. Akanmu, G. Olayiwola, Abayomi O. Sijuade

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 10-22
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i730181

In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive effects of the plant Vigna unguiculata spp dekindtiana using chemical and thermal tests in mice. The peripheral and the central analgesic activities of the methanol extract and its fractions were investigated in-vivo in albino mice using acetic acid induced-writhing test and hot plate models respectively. The result of the central analgesic effect showed that the methanol extract (VUME) at 400 mg/kg produced a significant (p<0.05) delay in reaction time in mice on hot plate compared to the control. Various fractions of the extract showed more potency compared to the crude extract. In acetic writhing model, the extract and the fractions demonstrated dose dependent reduction in writhing reaction induced by acetic acid in mice. The reduction was significant when compared to control which was suggestive of the analgesic effect of the plant. It was also seen that the extract and fractions showed an improved analgesic effect compared to diclofenac used as positive control in this model. Yohimbine (alpha adrenergic receptor antagonist) and cyproheptadine (serotonergic receptor antagonist) reversed the antinociceptic effect of the fractions in the hot plate model demonstrating the possibility of adrenergic and serotonergic involvement in eliciting the analgesic effect. Naloxone on the other hand, caused a reversal only in the butanol fraction meaning that this fraction may contain active principles that may mediate their analgesic effect through the opioid mechanism. In the writhing test, yohimbine abolished the analgesic effect of both hexane and butanol fractions. This may therefore, suggest that the analgesic effect of these fractions may be mediated through adrenergic pathway. In conclusion, the plant V. unguiculata subspecies dekindtiana possesses active principles with potential analgesic activity, establishing the folkloric use of the plant in managing pain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meat Singeing Practices and Knowledge of Its Effects on Health and Environment among Butchers in Uyo, Nigeria

Anyiekere Morgan Ekanem, Augustina Elochukwu Ijezie, Isaac Assam Udo, Udeme Ekpenyong Ekrikpo, Alphonsus Udo Idung

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i730182

Aims: To determine the materials used in singeing meat, reasons for their use and knowledge of the health and environmental effects of using old tyres in meat singeing by butchers in Uyo, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study used a descriptive cross-sectional study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Uyo capital city territory, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria from August                       1st  to 30th, 2019.

Methodology: We recruited 42 butchers (all males; mean age 25+/-6 years) from an abattoir, 2 slaughter slabs and meat processing sites on 2 major streets in Uyo capital city territory. Data collection was done using interviewer administered questionnaires and interview guide. Data was analyzed with Stata statistical software version 10.0.

Results: The major singeing materials for goat hides were plastics 19 (45.2%) and old tyres 10 (23.8%) while firewood 13 (31.0%) was used for cattle hides. Reasons for preference of singeing materials were: old tyres burn fast 10 (100.0%), cheaper than firewood 10 (100.0%) and left no cracks on hides 10 (100.0%); Plastics were available 17 (89.5%), longer duration of flame 16 (84.2%) and the cheapest 15 (78.9%) compared to tyres and firewood while firewood was preferred because it burnt slowly. Twenty five butchers (59.5%) had poor knowledge of the effect of use of old tires in singeing on health and environment. Reported symptoms associated with singeing were cough 17 (56.7%), dizziness 16 (53.3%) and itchy eyes 14 (46.7%). Key informant interview revealed that number of animals singed, duration of flame and cost of singeing material were the major determinants of the type of singeing materials used.

Conclusion: Plastics, old tyres and firewood were mainly used by butchers in singeing hides. Poor level of knowledge of effects of use of old tires in singeing was seen. Capacity building of butchers and ban of use of these materials is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Diabetes Mellitus on Adverse Drug Reaction to Anti-tuberculosis Drugs

Daud M. Ishaq Aweis, Syed Azhar Syed Suleiman

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i730183

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading cause of death among infectious diseases. The dual burden of TB and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major economic and health concern. Anti-TB therapy may predispose patients to develop adverse drug reaction (ADR). The effect of DM on anti-TB ADR requires more studies.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study and followed patients for at least two  years. Patients were selected from three Malaysian teaching hospitals. TB patients, and diabetic patients with TB were divided into two groups of 200 subjects each. Data were obtained from patients’ medical files at the beginning and end of the study  period. Prevalence of serious adverse drug reaction (ADR) requiring dose adjustment was assessed.

Results: ADR in our subjects was documented in the medical records and confirmed by a system known as Challenge. The prevalence rates of ADR amongst DM-TB and TB only patients were 16.5% and 14.8%, respectively, but the difference was not significant (Fisher E.T: P > 0.05). ADR was more frequent with streptomycin treatment, partially because of its painful administration. Isoniazid treatment showed the least frequency of ADR.

Conclusion: Although the frequency of ADR was high among DM-TB patients, it was not significantly different to that among TB only patients.

Open Access Review Article

Future Therapeutic Strategies in the Glaucoma Management

Waleed K. Abdulsahib

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i730184

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases in which progressive damage to the ocular nerves may cause retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Worldwide glaucoma is a leading cause of avoidable blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is considering to be the main identified cause of danger so far, and lowering intraocular pressure is the only recognized technique for inhibiting disease progression. Furthermore, blood vessels and genetic components of glaucoma are considered additional risk factors. In order to realize the potential progress of glaucoma treatment, new treatment strategies and ambitious goals are constantly being developing. These treatments will provide specific tissue goals to reduce IOP and ensure neuroprotective effects on RGCs. Consequently, physicians can shortly have an expanded range of medical choices to choose from, coupled with therapies that are more successful. Therefore, this study has reviewed the recent studies that were conducted on cellular mechanisms of glaucoma treatment.