Open Access Systematic Review Article

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Portable Ultrasound vs Portable X-Ray as Diagnostic Imaging of Knee Structures in Clinical Medicine

Samira Abdul Wajid, Samith Ahmed, Vaugn Devera, Devin Dickerson, Austin Thompson, Julia Villela

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 41-50
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i630178

Background: Imaging techniques are providing physicians an opportunity to ensure more accurate diagnostics. While MRI and CT are the gold standard diagnostic tools, they are not utilized as primary diagnostic tools due to their size, immobility, and exposure to radiation. It is not always feasible or practical to wait for a technician in an emergency department to conduct these examinations. As technology continues to advance, diagnostic tools are becoming more portable. X-ray and ultrasound are utilized to diagnose, as well as exclude potential causes of illness. Our objective is to determine which diagnostic tool is more efficient in diagnosing patella/knee injuries.

Methods: This systematic review aims to determine which diagnostic tool is more efficient at diagnosing injuries. By collecting and reviewing existing research to compare the limitations of injury detection, the accessibility and portability of both diagnostic machines, the safety in regards to radiation exposure to patient and physician, the reliability of the diagnoses, and the costs of each machine

Results: Of the reviewed articles, 58% of the articles focusing on knee injuries indicated that ultrasound imaging is a superior diagnostic instrument due to its efficacy and accessibility. When comparing ultrasound to x-ray directly, it was shown that ultrasound is a more precise diagnostic tool.

Conclusion: Ultrasound imaging is a more effective diagnostic tool than x-ray. It is better able to diagnose bone, soft tissue, and vessel injuries. It is a safer tool for both the patient and the physician because it uses sound rather than radiation to produce an image. It is also more accessible as advances in technology have made portable ultrasounds a protocol for quick assessments of injuries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Protective Properties of Elaeis oleifera Fruit Extract on Renal Parameters of Dichlorvos-Induced Nephrotoxocity in Albino Rats

Edna Ogechi Nwachuku, Fedelis Beega, Adline Erinma Ben- Chioma, Ngozi Brisibe, Ibioku Elekima

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i630175

Aim: Evaluate the protective effects of palm oil on renal parameters after dichlorvos toxicity in albino rats.

Study Design and Methodology: The study consisted of 3 phases: The acute study which lasted for 24 hours, the sub-acute study which lasted for 14 days and the sub chronic study which lasted for 30 days. The design and treatment pattern is shown below. Phase 1: Acute Study. Group 1: No DDVP, No palm oil for 24 hours (Negative control), Group 2: 30 mg/kg of DDVP without palm oil (positive control), Group 3: 30 mg/kg of DDVP and 100 mg/kg palm oil for 24 hours (treatment group). Phase 2: Sub-Acute (14 days) Study. Group 4: No DDVP, No palm oil for 14 days (Negative control), Group 5: 10 mg/kg of DDVP without palm oil daily for 14 days (positive control), Group 6: 10 mg/kg of DDVP and 100 mg/kg of palm oil daily for 14 days (positive control). Phase 3: Sub-Chronic (30 days) Study. Group 7: No DDVP, No palm oil for 30 days (Negative control), Group 8: 10 mg/kg of DDVP without palm oil daily for 30 days (positive control), Group 9: 10 mg/kg of DDVP and 100 mg/kg palm oil daily for 30 days (treatment group). All administration was done orally. After the period of treatments, the rats were sacrificed after 18 hours of fast. Whole blood samples (5 mls) were collected into lithium heparin bottle and spun at 3500 rpm for 5 minutes to obtain plasma samples. Samples obtained were used for the determination of Na+, K+, HCO3, urea, and creatinine while renal tissues obtained were used for histopathological examinations.

Results: Significantly higher values were seen in urea in the dichlorvos treated rats over a period of 24 hours, 14 days, and 30 days as compared to rats co-treated with palm oil and the control. Creatinine indicated significantly higher over a period of 24 hours while non-significant increases were observed in the dichlorvos treated rats over a period of 14 days and 30 days. More so, significantly higher values were seen in potassium in the dichlorvos treated rats over a period of 24 hours and 14 days, while significantly higher values in potassium were seen after period of 30 days as compared to rats co-treated with palm oil and the control. Sodium and chloride did not indicate significant difference over the period of 24 hours, 14 days, and 30 days. Histological examination of the renal tissue indicated structural distortions dichlorvos treated rats over a period of 24 hours, 14 days and 30 days while significant improvements in the structural integrity of the kidney were observed in rats co-treated with palm oil.

Conclusion: Results obtained indicated that palm oil showed a protective effect in ameliorating the nephrotoxicity induced by dichlorvos as shown by the histological examination and decreased values of creatinine and urea as well as potassium in palm oil treated rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effect of Chloroform Inhalation as a Method of Euthanasia on the Cerebellum and Hippocampus of Adult Wistar Rats

Ugochukwu Samuel Aguwa, Okeke Somadina Nnamdi, Ezejindu Darmian Nnabuihe, Eze Chinyere Elizabeth, Azurunwa Ogechi, Obinwa Benedict Nzube, Ovie Ogbo. Felix, Obi Kelvin Chukwuemeka, Onwuelingo Sopuru, Okonkwo David, Doris Ogbuokiri, Okeke Chijioke

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 14-25
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i630176

Chloroform inhalation is a common method of rodent euthanasia in Nigeria for research purposes. This work is designed to evaluate the consequence of this method of sacrifice on the cerebellum and hippocampus of Wistar rats. Twenty male Wistar rats weighing between 160 and 180 were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. Group A served as control and was sacrificed using cervical dislocation (a widely acceptable non-inhalation method of sacrifice). Groups B, C and D were exposed to chloroform for 5 minutes once a day (group B), once a day for 2 days and once a day for 3 days. The brains were removed; four from each group was processed for antioxidant assay while one from each group was fixed in Bouin’s fluid for histological studies. Our results show that chloroform inhalation adversely affected the results of the antioxidant parameters studied in a dose-dependent fashion. That means that the adverse effect worsened as the number of days increased. This was also the case with the histology results as there was evidence of cell necrosis in the cerebellar and hippocampal tissues. This also showed dose dependence. We therefore conclude from our results that when studying the brain tissues or carrying out brain related researches, chloroform inhalation is not the method of choice for rat euthanasia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive and Oxidative Stress Toxicity of Dolutegravir-Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Drosophila melanogaster

Walter Mdekera Iorjiim, Simeon Omale, Great David Bagu, Steven Samuel Gyang, Emmanuel Taiwo Alemika

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 26-40
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i630177

Background/Objective: Dolutegravir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (DTG-HAART) is the preferred regimen in the management of HIV/AIDS. However, the reproductive and oxidative stress toxicity of DTG-HAART is unknown.  This study was designed to investigate the reproductive and oxidative stress toxicity of DTG-HAART in Drosophila melanogaster.

Materials and Methods: We performed all the experiments at the Centre of Excellence in phytomedicine Research and Development (ACEPRD), University of Jos, Nigeria, in 2019.  D. melanogaster, (1-4 days old), were fed with ten different concentrations of DTG-HAART (range 15 mg -595 mg) or 1000 mL distilled water per 10 g food for seven days to calculate the LD50, then treated with 93.11 mg, 46.56 mg, 23.28 mg, 11.64 mg or 1000 µL distilled water each per 10 g fly food for five days in five replicates. Subsequently, longevity, fly fecundity, and negative geotaxis evaluated. Also, activities of Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione-S-transferase, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, as well as Total thiol, and Malondialdehyde levels were investigated in the whole fly homogenate. Statistical values at P<0.05 were considered significant.

Results: The LD50 of DTG-HAART in D. melanogaster was 106.4 mg. The result showed significantly decrease (P<0.001) in mean lifespan, fly emergence, Total thiol content, Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione-S-transferase, Catalase, and Superoxide dismutase activities in the exposed groups compared to the unexposed. Inversely, the Malondialdehyde level in the test groups was significantly (P<0.001) elevated compared to unexposed.

Conclusion: Collectively, our results suggest that   DTG-HAART toxicity was associated with reproductive deficits and oxidative stress induction in D. melanogaster, here observed as reduced fly fecundity, mean lifespan, AChE activity, antioxidant parameters, and elevated MDA level. This study, thus, raised concerns for long term use of DTG-HAART by HIV patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Atherogenic Indices and Markers of Cardiac Injury in Albino Rats Orally Administered with Tartrazine Azo Dye

Geraldine Iroh, Benita Oyoburuoma Weli, Uyota Anthony Adele, Ojoye Ngoye Briggs, Helen Anthony Waribo, Ibioku Elekima

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 51-61
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i630179

Aim: Assess the effect of tartrazine azo dye on atherogenic indices and markers of cardiac injury in albino rats.

Study Design: A total number of 63 rats were used for the study. The study was divided into two phases, 1 and 2, which lasted for 30 and 60 days respectively. Phase 1 had 35 rats, 20 as test and 15 as control, while phase 2 had 28 rats, 16 as test and 12 as control. In each phase the test groups were given 7.5mg/kg of tartrazine orally on daily basis over the stipulated period while the control groups were not treated with tartrazine.

Methodology: At the end of the study, 5ml of whole blood was collected from the jugular veins into Lithium Heparin bottles. The sample was spun, plasma collected and analyzed for cardiac Troponin I (cTn-I) and cardiac Troponin T (cTn-T), Total creatinekinase (CK), creatinekinase MM (CK-MM), and creatinekinase MB (CK-MB). Lipid parameters like total cholesterol (TC), High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and Triglyceride (TG) which were also analysed. Atherogenic indices such as atherogenic coefficient (AC), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), Non High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (nHDL-C), and castelli risk indices 1 and 2 (CRI-1 and CRI-2) were also calculated. In addition, cardiac tissues were collected, fixed in 10% formol saline and examined histologically using Haematoxylin and Eosin stain. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism version 8.02.

Results: The results obtained indicate significant increases in nHDL-C, total CK and cTn-T after 30 and 60 days of treatment with tartrazine at ADI doses against controls. Other atherogenic indices such as AIP, AC, CRI-1 and CRI-2 as well as markers of cardiac injury such as cTn-I and CK-MB indicated non-significant increases.

Conclusion: Orally administered tartrazine over a 60 day period induced cardiac injury as shown by the significant increase in the cTn-T and total CK as well as hypertrophied nuclei of cardiomyocytes. This goes to say chronic administration of tartrazine even at the recommended daily dose could pose the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is also supported by an increase in nHDL cholesterol.