Open Access Original Research Article

Lead-Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats: Amelioration by Palm Wine

Femi A. Egbeleke, Kehinde O. Shittu, Ayobola A. Iyanda

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i530169

Lead a free-radical generating agent is a multi-systemic toxicant which affects major body systems especially the hepatic axis. Several natural products rich in antioxidant agents have been used to ameliorate lead toxicity. Vitamin C present abundantly in palm wine has been noted for its ability to modulate oxidative stress. This study investigated the ameliorative effects of palm wine in lead-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Adults Wistar rats randomly divided into Groups A-H, consisting of 7 rats per group were used for the study. Groups A and B were administered with distilled water and palm wine respectively. Groups C, E, and G were dosed daily with lead nitrate at dosage levels of 50 (low dose), 150 (intermediate dose) and 600 (high dose) mg/kg body weight (BW). On the other hand, Groups D, F, and H were administered daily with lead nitrate at dosage levels of 50, 150 and 600 mg/kg body weight (BW) as well as palm wine (10 mL/kg BW). All experimental animals were allowed access to standard feed and water without any form of restriction. Estimation of biochemical parameters i.e. total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferases (ALT; AST) took place using standard biochemical methods. The liver was harvested and processed for histological study using haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student’s t-test. P< 0.05 was considered significant. While albumin concentrations were not significantly different, both total protein and globulin concentrations in lead administered rats were significantly reduced compared with control. Periportal and interstitial hepatitis and necrosis occurred from lead exposure at different levels suggesting hepatotoxicity. Meanwhile, lead and palm wine-administered rats featured similar histologic results. In conclusion, the results of the study, therefore, indicate that palm wine does not possess an ameliorative effect on lead-induced hepatotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vivo Anti-typhoid Activities of Ethanol Stem Bark Extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Wild) in Albino Rats Infected with Salmonella typhi

Ebenezer Oluyemi Dada, Busayo Temitope Akinyele

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i530170

Aims: To study the In-vivo anti-typhoid activities of ethanol stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea in albino rats infected with Salmonella typhi.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Between January, 2019 and June, 2019.

Methodology: Fresh stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea were collected, dried, powered and extracted using 70% ethanol. Twenty – seven rats of same age between 90 -120 g in weight were selected and divided into 9 groups containing three each. The infectivity dose (ID) was determined with the clinical S. typhi. After which the rats were infected and orally administered various standard doses of the B. ferruginea stem bark extract (50-5000 mg/kg) accordingly for 7 days. During the treatment period, the fecal samples were collected to monitor the ability of the extract to reduce the fecal shedding of S. typhi. Also, the rats were weighed daily to establish the effect of treatment on their metabolism.

Results: Ethanol extract of B. ferruginea Stem bark at concentrations of 50 mg/ml – 100 mg/ml, didn’t produce any zone of inhibition but from 300-5000mg/ml produce zone of inhibition (ZI) at 2.00-18.33 mm (P< 0.05) on culture of clinical S. typhi isolate and on typed S. typhi isolate zones of inhibitions were seen at concentrations 50mg/ml-5000mg/ml, it produced ZI of 8.00 – 26.19 mm(P< 0.05). Minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanol extract on the clinical S. typhiis 300mg/ml while on the typed isolate the minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanol extract was 2600 mg/ml on ethanol extract respectively. The MBC for the two S. typhi isolates were 300 mg/ml and 1000 mg/ml respectively. The in-vivo investigation showed the ethanol extract of B. ferruginea stem bark on S. typhi colony forming units per ml (cfu/ml) of suspensions of faeces of infected rats and treated with the ethanol extract of B. ferruginea stem bark decreased significantly (P< 0.05) as the days of the treatment increased while the cfu/ml of the infected but untreated group significantly (P< 0.05) increased. There were no significant (P< 0.05) difference between weights of S. typhi un-infected, infected rats treated with Ciprofloxacin and ethanol extract of B. ferruginea stem bark but weight of the untreated group significantly (P< 0.05) decreased. Preliminary phytochemical screening of stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and terpenoid were pharmacological importance.

Conclusion: The in-vivo anti- typhoid activity of stem-bark ethanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to be relatively safe against Salmonella typhi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustained-release Theophylline Matrix Tablet Using Hydrophilic Polymers: Effects of Agitation Rates and pH on Release Kinetics

E. I. Akpabio, D. E. Effiong, T. O. Uwah, N. I. Sunday, G. Jacob, U. Isong

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 36-50
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i530173

Background and Objective: Modified-release tablet of theophylline that can increase its usefulness despite narrow therapeutic index and short half-life, is being formulated. However, the rate and extent of release of a sustained-release delivery system can be affected by some factors. This work is aimed at investigating the effect of agitation rates and pH of dissolution medium on release kinetics of sustained-release theophylline tablet formulated using hydrophilic polymers.

Materials and Methods: Theophylline granules was formulated using 3 polymers (HPMC, SCMC and Sodium alginate) to form 3 batches of granule by wet granulation method, using 95% ethanol. The granules compacted to batches of sustained-release matrix tablets. The tablet batches were characterized for tablet properties, and dissolution studies carried out using simulated gastric and intestinal fluid separately at different agitation rates. The data from dissolution studies were subsequently fitted into 4 drug release kinetics models.

Results: The swelling of the 3 polymers over time was noteworthy, although there was no significant difference between them. The release kinetic followed the Higuchi model and zero-order releasing more than 90% over 8 hours period, with t10 and t90 released at 14 minutes and 6.8 hours respectively. The mechanical properties of the tablets were within the acceptable limit.

Conclusion: The agitation rate and pH of the medium had no significant effect on the release of the theophylline from the batches of matrix tablets except in the case of F1 which showed a marginally significant effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological and Biochemical Studies of Germ Cell Toxicity in Male Rats Exposed to Sodium Benzoate

Jewo, Peter Imoni, Oyeniran, David Anuoluwapo, Ojekale, Anthony Babajide, Oguntola, Jamiu Akanni

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 51-69
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i530174

Background: One of the consequences of increasing urbanization is that many people eat processed foods that contain various chemical substances applied as additives. Some of them may have the ability to suppress male fertility.

Aims: To determine the effects of sodium benzoate (NaB) on the histology of the testis, and biochemical and semen parameters in rats. The potential of Vitamin E to protect the testis was also studied.

Methodology: Six groups of 8 rats each were treated with these substances: Group A (Control) had olive oil. Groups B and C had 200 mg/kg of NaB with Vitamin E added to group C. Groups D and E had 400 mg/kg of NaB with Vitamin E added to group E. Groups F and G were given NaB only at 200 mgkg and 400 mg/kg respectively but were left for an extra 4 weeks after the last treatment dose. All groups were treated daily for 8weeks. Outcome measures were testosterone assays and cell counts and morphometry in the testis. We also examined biochemical parameters such as catalase, glutathione and malondialdehyde levels.

Results: This study showed that NaB impaired reproduction. Total sperm count in some treated groups were reduced to half (50%) of the count in control animals. There was reduction in anti-oxidant levels and elevation in markers of lipid peroxidation suggesting oxidative stress. There was histologic evidence of impaired spermatogenesis and considerable testicular damage with micrographs showing widespread germ cell loss and sloughing of germinal epithelium in many places. Vitamin E offered significant protection from testicular damage in the groups given the vitamin.

Conclusion: We conclude that NaB has the potential to impair fertility in rats and more studies are needed to determine its safety level in the male reproductive system.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Gut Microbiome on Metabolic Disorders

Ifeanyi O. Oshim, Nneka R. Agbakoba, Evelyn U. Urama, Oluwayemisi Odeyemi, Nkechi A. Olise, Godsplan U. John

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 21-35
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i530171

Microbiome that reside in the human gut are key contributors to host metabolism and are considered potential sources of novel therapeutics in metabolic disorders. This review discusses the role of gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Gut microbiome remains quite stable, although changes take place between birth and adulthood due to external influences, such as diet, disease and environment. Understanding these changes is important to predict diseases and develop therapies. In gut heamostasis, Gut microbiome converts high fibres intake into short-chain fatty acids like butyrate, propionate and acetate which normalize intestinal permeability and alter de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis through reduction of free fatty acid production by visceral adipose tissue. This effect contributes to reduce food intake and to improve glucose metabolism. Propionate can also bind to G protein coupled receptors (GPR)-43 expressed on lymphocytes in order to maintain appropriate immune defence. Butyrate activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) leading to beta-oxidation and oxygen consumption, a phenomenon contributing to maintain anaerobic condition in the gut lumen. In contrast, diets most especially western diet consisting among others of high fat and high salt content has been reported to cause gut dysbiosis. This alteration of gut microbiome result to chronic bacterial translocation and increased intestinal permeability that can drive a systemic inflammation leading to macrophage influx into visceral adipose tissue, activation of hepatic kuffer cells and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. This effect contributes to lower mucus thickness, decrease butyrate and propionate producing bacteria, L-cells secrete less gut peptides, lack of PPAR-γ activation lead to higher oxygen available for the microbiome at the proximity of the mucosa and increases the proliferation of Enterobacteriaceae with commensurate increase in opportunistic pathogens. However, Gut microbiome are major biomarker for early prognosis of diabetes and other metabolic disorders.