Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Intervention on Pharmacists’ Counselling on Patients’ Knowledge and Opinion of Antibacterial Usage

Adeola Adebisi Michael, Omole Moses Kayode, Itiola Oludele Adelanwa

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i430164

The knowledge and opinion of patients on antibacterial usage depends on pharmacist’s counselling. In Nigeria, study assessing patients’ perception of pharmacists’ antibacterial counselling is scarce. This study assessed the knowledge and opinion of patients on antibacterial usage as a result of pharmacists’ counselling pre and post intervention. The study was a cross sectional study among 409 outpatients with antibacterial prescriptions in 17-government-owned secondary healthcare facilities in Ogun State of Nigeria between July 2017 and May 2018. The knowledge and the opinion of the patients were determined via structured questionnaire and deficiency was addressed via intervention training for the pharmacists. Re-assessment was carried out after a month.

Four hundred and nine patients participated at each of the two phases of the study.  The mean age at the baseline survey, was 43.9 ± 14.9 and the age range was 19 - 87 years while at the post intervention survey, the mean age was 44.1 ± 15.7 and the age range was from 18 to 91 years. The patients that were probed on drugs they had at hand or at home increased from 20 (4.9%) to 263 (64.3%) between the two phases. Seventeen, (4.2%) and 171 (41.8) claimed to receive counselling on necessity of completing the course of therapy at the two phases respectively. The survey confirmed that 284 (69.4%) and 319 (77.9%) at the two phases respectively were of the view that counselling on drugs is best done by pharmacists. Two hundred and fifty six (62.7%) and 262 (64.1%) patients rated the counselling they received as ≥ 70% at the two phases respectively. There was significant improvement in the knowledge and opinion of patients on antibacterial usage due to pharmacists’ counselling post intervention p < .05. Constant training on antibacterial counselling should therefore be encouraged among pharmacists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effect of Aqueous Stem Extract of Costus afer on Lipids and Atherogenic Profile of Albino Rats in Acetaminophen Induced Liver Toxicity

L. L. Nwisah, T - E. G. Davies, E. S. Bartimaeus

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i430165

Background: Medicinal plants are widely used in Nigeria because they are believed to be effective in the treatment of various medical conditions and are also easily accessable with minimal side effect.

Aim: This study evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of different doses (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight) of Costus afer on lipid profile of 50 male albino rats.

Methodology: The research study was divided into 2 phases with 25 rats used for each phases. The 25 rats used for each phase were randomly selected into 5 groups with each group containing 5 rats. The rats used for the prophylactic phase were induced with 800 mg/kg body weight paracetamol for liver toxicity after administration of the various concentrations of aqueous stem extract of C. afer for 28 days while those used during the therapeutic phase were administered with the various concentrations of aqueous stem extract of C. afer following confirmation of liver toxicity using 800 mg/kg body weight acetaminophen. The effect of the aqueous extract was assessed by measuring the serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein using Randox reagent, while low density lipoprotein was calculated from the other parameters. Atherogenic ratios were also computed. The result obtained from the experiment was subjected to statistical analysis using Graph pad prism version 5.3 and values were considered significant at p<0.05.

Results: Total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels were significantly (p<0.05) reduced and HDL significantly increased in the treatment groups (prophylactic and therapeutic phases) compared to the positive control. When both phases were compared, total cholesterol and triglycerides showed significant (p<0.05) difference in concentration in groups fed with 400 mg/kg, 200 mgkg while LDL-C showed significant (p<0.05) variation between the two phases only at 400 mg/kg body weight. The extracts were also found to significantly (p<0.05) reduce the atherogenic status of the albino rats in both phases of treatment and between each treatment phase.

Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that Costus afer possesses the ability to regulate paracetamol induced dyslipidaemia and improve the anti-atherogenic status of treated albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological Investigation of Serial Anxiety Tests in the Mouse: A Pilot Study

A. M. Umarudeen, M. G. Magaji, O. S. Bello, C. Aminu, M. I. Abdullahi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 25-31
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i430166

The use of test batteries has been suggested as a means to enhance throughput, to broaden the spectrum of anxiety parameters detectable and to minimise the numbers of experimental animals required in behavioural studies. This study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of test batteries each of open field, zero mazes and staircase tests to anxiety behaviours in randomised mouse groups. Mice (n = 8) were exposed to these apparatuses serially in that order, thirty minutes following intraperitoneal administration of distilled water, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg diazepam.  Each mouse was allowed to spend 5 minutes to freely explore each test apparatus.  The results showed diazepam-treated mice exhibited significantly (p<0.05) reduced anxiety behaviours compared to the placebo group on most rodent anxiety parameters evaluated. The findings of this study suggest these behavioural test apparatuses, when used in serial combination, are sensitive and reliable to measure murine anxiety-related behaviours and the anxiolytic effects of standard/putative agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anaemia, Body Mass Index and Risk Factors Association with Malarious Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

C. A. Imakwu, J. C. Ozougwu, O. P. Okeke, G. U. Amana, S. C. Eziuzor

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i430167

Aims: Malaria in pregnancy is a weighty health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where 90% of the global malaria burden occurs, therefore there is urgent need for more researches on malaria in pregnancy to reduce its mortality and morbidity. Anaemia, body mass index and risk factors association with malarious pregnant women in Ebonyi State was investigated in this study.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study on malaria infection among pregnant women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was carried out from April 2011 to March 2012 from two selected hospitals.

Methodology: Venous blood samples were collected for thick and thin films blood smears for microscopic examinations. Presence or absence of anaemia was determined by measuring haemoglobin concentration spectrophotometrically using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Chi-square (χ2) was used to analyse the data collected. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results: The result showed that out of 360 pregnant women sampled with average age of (26.54 ± 4.61), infection rate of 150 (41.7%) was observed. The prevalence of anaemia was 202(56.1%) and it was highly associated with malaria, infection was higher among pregnant women who were anaemic than those who were not. Also, body mass index is associated with malaria as it showed its highest prevalence amongst overweight pregnant women. The risk factors associated with malaria in this study were rainy season, primigravidae and primary education.

Conclusion: Increased awareness about anaemia, body mass index and risk factors such as rainy season, primigravidae and primary education association with malaria as established in this study could help in the reduction of the burden of malaria among pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Homocysteinaemia in Heart Failure Patients in North Eastern Nigeria

Y. A. Ayoola, H. I. Okolie, O. M. Akinlade, O. G. Oluwatoyin, M. W. Ali, S. A. Biliaminu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 39-47
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i430168

Aims: The study was aimed at determining the relationship between plasma homocysteine level and indices of severity in heart failure patients seen at a referral teaching hospital in Gombe, Northeast Nigeria.

Study Design: It was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted on newly diagnosed heart failure patients managed by the cardiology unit of the Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, between May 2015 and December 2015.

Methodology: Ninety newly diagnosed Heart Failure patients who presented to the hospital along with 90 age and sex matched controls were recruited. All the subjects had clinical and Echocardiography evaluations. Homocysteine was assayed using enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit for homocysteine designed by Cloud-clone Corp. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows (SPSS), Version 20.

Results: The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of the patients was 35.4±9.81% while that of the control group was 62.1±7.04% (P <0.001). The mean HCY of patients (11.61 ± 8.00 umol/l) was higher than that of controls (10.24±6.98umol.l), though not significantly; P=0.225. The 90th percentile of the homocysteine (HCY) levels in control was 20.9 umol/l. There was no significant relationship between plasma HCY level and the NYHA class of the patients, though post hoc analysis shows HCY level significantly increased from class I to other classes (P=0.034, P=0.020 and P=0.047 respectively). The bivariate correlation between plasma HCY and Echocardiographic LV indices revealed no statistically significant relationship especially with the LVEF (r-0.149, p=0.160). However, the plasma HCY of the heart failure patients increased with increasing left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (r=0.246, p=0.019).

Conclusion: The study found that homocysteine levels are not significantly elevated in heart failure patients compared with healthy matched controls. However, elevated values were found with increasing left ventricular mass index. This might suggest a possible role of homocysteine in cardiac remodeling.