Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Caffeine at Different Concentrations on Behavior and Motor Activity in Mice

Sakina S. Saadawi, Khairi A. Alennabi, Sumaya Baayo, Amera Fares, Najwa Alosta, Suher M. Aburawi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i330159

Aims: This article aimed to study the effect of different caffeine concentrations on behaviour and motor activity of mice.

Place and Duration of Study: This study took place in Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tripoli, and was conducted between 2017 to 2018.

Methodology: The experiment was carried out using 24 male mice (25-30 gm). Plus maze was used for screening antianxiety effect of caffeine. While swimming maze was used to test the antidepressant effect. Descriptive statistics was performed using SPSS (version 22), followed by one sample Kolmogorov-Simirnov test. One-Way ANOVA was applied to compare between groups and Post Hoc test (LSD). 

Results: At a dose of 100 mg/kg, caffeine produce significant decrease in the duration of immobility using forced swimming maze; while the lower (25 mg/kg) and the higher (200 mg/kg) doses did not produce any changes compared to the control. In plus maze, Caffeine decreases the anxiety measure at the dose used of 100 mg/kg; but did not change the anxiety measure when lower (25 mg/kg) or higher (200 mg/kg) doses used compared to the control. The spontaneous motor activity was decreased significantly after administration of the higher dose of 200 mg/kg; the lower dose (25 mg/kg) showed insignificant increase, while the dose of 100 mg/kg produce insignificant decrease in the spontaneous motor activity.

Conclusion: Caffeine has dose dependent effect, in a dose 100 mg/kg it produce anxiolytic and antidepressant like action, while lower (25 mg/kg) and higher (200 mg/kg) doses did not show any changes. Caffeine also produce dose dependent decrease in the spontaneous motor activity, this indicate that caffeine produce CNS depression with higher doses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemistry and Toxicity of Methanol Root Extract of Costus lucanusianus

Hope Delesi Kagbo, Lilian Ayagogo Gospel

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i330160

Costus lucanusianus (ginger lily or monkey sugarcane) is a medicinal plant commonly used to treat various ailments in tropical Africa. The leaves, stem and sometimes the root have been exploited for this purpose. However, it is a common belief in the Niger Delta of Nigeria that the root is poisonous. This study investigated the phytochemical and acute toxicity profiles of the methanol root extract of the plant. Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard procedures to test for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, glycosides, triterpenoids/steroids and carbohydrates. The median lethal dose (LD50) was determined using the Arithmetic method of Reed and Muench. This was followed by haematologic, liver and kidney functionality assays at doses of 14, 29 and 58 mg/kg of the methanol root extract. The result obtained showed that the extract contained flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids among others, but anthraquinones and alkaloids were not present. The median lethal dose (LD50) value obtained for the extract was 288 mg/kg. The haematologic assay showed significant, p<0.001, dose-dependent decrease in red blood cell parameters and also some white blood cell parameters (such as white blood cell, neutrophil, monocytes and eosinophil counts). Furthermore, the serum levels of the liver enzymes, electrolytes (except K+), urea and creatinine increased significantly as the doses increased. From the foregoing, it could be concluded that the root of Costus lucanusianus is toxic to the kidney and liver and could be a blood poison (hemotoxic). This confirms the ethnobotanical belief that this part of the plant (root) is poisonous.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Inflammatory and Cardiac Status of Echis ocellatus Snake-bite Victims in Jos Metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria

P. O. Manafa, G. C. Jackson Njoku, C. C. Onyenekwe, O. Ekuma-Okereke, E. E. Nnadi, R. S. Ebugosi, G. O. Chukwuma, E. C. Onah, R. C. Chukwuanukwu, K. E. Nwene, V. I. Manafa, O. S. Ogbuowelu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 20-30
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i330161

Background: This study was designed to evaluate the inflammatory and cardiac status of snakebite victims using serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin-I (TnI), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) as markers in Echis ocellatus snakebite victims before and after administration of EchiTAb-G antivenom.

Materials and Methods: A total of 80subjects (40 Echis ocellatus bite victims and 40 apparently healthy indivuals as test and control subjects respectively) were purposively recruited for this study. Venous blood samples were collected within 4hours after bite. The whole blood clotting time (WBCT20) was determined immediately. Another batch of samples were collected from same snakebite victims, 2days post administration of the anti-venom. CRP and Troponin-I levels were evaluated using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique while serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were assayed spectrophotometrically.

Results: The mean serum levels of troponin-I (2.98±5.75) and CRP (36.64±29.01) were significantly higher in Echis ocellatus bite victims before administration of anti-venom compared with control subjects (0.007±0.3 and 0.99±0.28) and after post administration of anti-venom (0.16±1.39 and 15.96±17.36) (P<0.05) respectively. Conversely, the mean plasma levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly lower (p<0.05) in snake bite subjects before anti-venom administration when compared with control and snake bite subjects after post administration of anti-venom. Furthermore, the mean serum levels of troponin-I and CRP correlated significantly positive when correlated between snake bite subjects before (r=0.498, p=0.001) and after (r=0.430, p=0.006) anti-venom administration respectively.

Conclusion: The research findings therefore suggest that Echis ocellatus envenomation triggers inflammatory reaction which could be the reason behind the alteration in cardiac markersas evidenced by the significant elevations in serum troponin-I and CRP levels amongst snake bite victims compared to the non-snake bite control groups thus, could cause cardiac arrest before anti-venom administration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medical Students and Internet Addiction: A Study at Bolan University of Medical and Health Sciences Quetta, Pakistan

Zulfiqar Khosa, M. Yaseen Bazai, Abdullah Zulfiqar Khosa, Hamaiyal Sana

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i330162

Objective: The use of internet is unavoidable in daily life. The young individuals are more prone to this condition. Beside many good benefits certain hazards are indicative richly observed in adolescent. The addiction test for internet usage is largely popular by using Internet Addiction Test IAT globally. This study is designed to assess and explore the internet addiction among Pakistani adolescents.  

Methods: 300 medical students of Bolan University of Medical and Health Sciences aged from 18-25 years randomly selected for this study. Data collected based on scoring Internet Addiction Test 20 questionnaire. Factor categorization with Internet addiction assessment measured and analyzed according to age groups and gender specification. 

Results: The study results explored the addiction level of students. No sign of addiction seen in 32.33% (n=97) of students. Low and moderate level of addiction found in 46% (n=138) students and sever form of internet addiction seen in 21.66% (n=65) of medical students.

Conclusion: On the outcomes of current study, the measures should be seen for social and emotional behaviors and positive time given to internet use. Selected prevention measures should be planned for adolescent based on internet addiction.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Short Term Toxicological Evaluation of the Pentaclethra macrophylla (Benth) Essential Oil (Oil Bean Seed) on Organs of Normal Male Albino Rats

A. M. Yusuf-Babatunde, L. S. Kasim, O. T. Osuntokun

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 41-48
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i330163

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the short term toxicological assessment of the Pentaclethra macrophylla (Benth) oil (oil bean seed) on organs of normal male albino rats. Fresh pods of Pentaclethra macrophylla (Benth) were collected directly from the plant tree in July 2009 at the site opposite the Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State. Twenty four (24) healthy male albino rats purchased from Animal house of Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan, and weighing between 92.0 – 105.4 g were used for the experiment. The effect of the oil extract was investigated by oral administration of the oil into different groups of rats using oral cannular (Group A-D). All the administration was carried out as single dose continually for 8 weeks. The toxicity effects of the extracted oil from Pentaclethra macrophylla (Benth) was investigated on five organs of rats (liver, brains, kidney, heart and testis). The animals were divided into four groups (A, B, C, and D) fed with a normal diet and three different levels of concentrations of the oil. With the oral cannular techniques, the first group (A) rats were fed with 0.2 ml/day of oil with a normal diet, second group (B) with 0.4 ml/day with a normal diet, the third group (C) fed with 0.6 ml/day oil with normal diet while fourth group D were treated with normal diet only, serving as the control group for the study. The results of the histological examination indicated that as the concentrations of the oil ingested increases, some of the tissues of the organs were affected. Therefore, the study suggested that Pentaclethra macrophylla (Benth) oil was toxic to the organs of the rats. Therefore, the consumption of the seeds by the human can constitute health hazards and risks.