Open Access Case Report

Case Series: Management of Foot Drop

Isaac Olusayo Amole, Stephen Adesope Adesina, Adewumi Ojeniyi Durodola, Samuel Uwale Eyesan

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430143

Aim: To highlight the functional outcome of surgical management of foot drop in patients with Hansen disease.

Case Presentation:  We present three cases of foot drop following Hansen’s disease that were managed surgically by Tibialis posterior transfer. The patients had preoperative physiotherapy for ten days and postoperative physiotherapy for four weeks. Their post-operative periods were uneventful and the corrections were satisfactory.

Discussion: Involvement of common peroneal nerve in Hansen’s disease usually results in paralysis of the anterior tibial and/or peroneal muscles. Hansen’s disease patients with foot-drop walk with a ‘high-stepping gait’, lifting the leg high as if climbing steps even while walking on level ground. When the paralysis has been present for more than six months to one year without recovery, the best option of treatment at this stage is corrective surgery and the main aim of the corrective surgery is to restore active dorsiflexion of the foot so that the gait becomes normal. This is achieved by re-routing the tendon of Tibialis posterior muscle, brings that tendon to lie in front of the ankle and is anchored distally. If the tendo-achillis tendon is found to be tight, it should be lengthened as the first step of the Tibialis posterior transfer operation.

Conclusion: Surgical correction of foot drop usually leads to restoration of active dorsiflexion of the foot thereby preventing development of secondary deformities and ulceration. Our patients were able to dorsiflex their feet after the surgical correction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Susceptibility of Azardirachta indica against Some Strains of Candida albicans

A. D. M. Owoyale, M. Galadimma, S. Y. Daniyan, N. Adabara

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430137

This research work was focus on determining the quantitative phytochemical analysis and antifungal susceptibility of Azardirachta indica against some strains of Candida albicans. The leaves of Azardirachta indica was susccessively extracted using reflux method of extraction. Quantitative phytochemical screenings were done to determine the amounts of phytochemical that are present in the crude extracts. The result showed that the extract of Azardirachta indica (neem) possessed active principles which include: Alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenols and tannin which were present in the crude extracts. The antifungal activity of the extracts was assayed against three different strains (P37005, RM1000 & SC5314) The antifungal susceptibility test of the crude extracts against the strains were determined at different concentrations of 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/ml using the  agar well diffusion method. The n- hexane and methanol crude extract showed inhibitory activity compared to that of ethyl acetate that had no inhibitory activity. The highest mean zone of inhibition (MZI) was 15.00±1.00 mm which was recorded for n-hexane leaf extract at a concentration of 100 mg/ml against strain RM1000 (isolate: S2). Although the standard antibiotics (Fluconazole) used in this study showed a much higher zone of inhibition than that of the n-hexane and methanol crude extract. The MIC and MFC value for n-hexane crude extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml respectively against strain P37005 (Isolate:S1)likewise, the n-hexane crude extract had a value of 6.25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml. However, the methanol crude extract showed a value of 6.25 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively against SC5314 (isolate:S3).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antioxidant Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Pre-Eclampsia

Patrick O. Manafa, Charles C. Onyenekwe, Anselem C. Igwe, Nancy A. Mbachu, George O. Chukwuma, Rebecca C. Chukwuanukwu, Vera I. Manafa, Kenneth E. Nwene, Nancy C. Ibeh

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430138

Aim: To assess the role of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

Study Design: This is a case-control study designed to evaluate the levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity with glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in pre-eclamptic. One hundred (100) participants were randomly selected to include fifty pre-eclamptic (test), twenty-five (25) healthy pregnant normotensive women (control A) and twenty-five healthy non-pregnant normotensive women (control B).

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Holy Rosary Hospital waterside, Onitsha, Anambra state. Nigeria. The study lasted for 13 months.

Methodology: One hundred women (50 pre-eclamptic, 25 pregnant normotensives and 25 non-pregnant normotensives) aged 25-40 years were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected from the participants for the estimation of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities using spectrophotometric methods. Blood pressures were measured using accosson sphygmomanometer. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at p < 0.05.

Results: The TAC was significantly higher in the pregnant normotensives (p< 0.05) compared with the pre-eclamptic and non-pregnant normotensives. There was no significant difference in the MDA in pre-eclamptic compared with pregnant normotensives and non-pregnant normotensives (p>0.05). A significant difference was observed in the SOD and GPx activities in the pregnant normotensive and non-pregnant normotensives compared with pre-eclamptic. A positive correlation was observed between the blood pressures (systolic and diastolic) and the activities of TAC, SOD and GPx in pre-eclamptic. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between MDA levels and SBP (r = 0.019) while a negative correlation (r = -0.225) existed between MDA and DBP.

Conclusion: Diminished ability of antioxidants to scavenge free radicals may affect the onset of pre-eclampsia and therefore possible prognostic tool in its management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cephalometric Analysis of Sella Turcica for Age Determination from Sokoto, Nigeria: A Radiological Study

Z. Usman, G. H. Yunusa, A. Bello, J. D. Usman, A. Aliu, S. S. Bello, I. M. Ahmad, M. A. Musa, T. Ammani, G. B. Marwan, R. Bello, A. M. Ahmed, U. Abubakar, B. O. Onimisi, H. A. Bunza, A. D. Zagga

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430139

Cephalometry deals with the measurement of the head or radiological specimen of the head. Sella turcica is an important anatomical structure located in the middle cranial fossa, housing the pituitary gland. Various shapes and sizes of the sellae turcica have been reported. However, in this study, using computerized tomographic (CT) scans, one hundred and seventy-five (175) scans were analyzed using Radiant version 4.2 for determination of sizes and shapes of the sella. Average dimensions from the study include length (12.4mm), A-P diameter (14.1 m), depth (9.6 mm) and transverse diameter (13.8mm). Shapes were classified as being round (56.6%), oval (32%) and flat (11.4%). Males tend to have higher sella sizes than females and there are statistically               significant differences between them especially in respect to A-P diameter and length parameters. Also, there is a statistically significant relationship between age groups in terms of A-P diameter and depth of the sella turcica. However, there is no correlation between age and shapes found in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic, Aqueous and Partially Purified Protein of Young and Matured Leaves of Guiera senegalensis (Moshi Medicine)

M. K. Jiyil, C. E. Mafuyai, M. I. Shago, H. M. Inuwa

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430140

Background: Microorganisms have evolved defence mechanisms against antimicrobial agents and have become resistant to some antibiotics.

Aim of the Study: This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanol as well as that of the aqueous and partially purified protein of   young and matured leaves of Guiera senegalensis.

Study Duration: This study was conducted on 30th January, 2015 at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu  Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

Methodology: Antimicrobial activity was determined using disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques, Gel chromatography techniques were used to fractionate the crude protein.

Results: The Test isolates were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans. All the extracts were sensitive to most of the isolates except Candida albican (fungus).

The crude and partially purified proteins were active against the Gram positive bacteria. The maximum zone of inhibition (42.00±1.00 mm) was observed in the methanol extract of a young leaf against Staphylococcus aureus at 100 mg/ml. The methanol extracts exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at a range of 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml. The young leaf was more active than the matured leaf. Quantitative phytochemicals showed high amounts of saponins (26.20% and 19.66%) in matured and young leaves respectively.

Conclusion: This research justifies the traditional claim of Guiera senegalensis leaves for therapeutic purposes. The leaves can be used to remedy diseases caused by bacterial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Immuno-modulatory and Thrombocytopaenic Effects of the Varying Concentrations of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Moringa Oleifera in Male Albino Wistar Rats

Ojeka Sunday Ogbu, Zabbey Victor Zigabelbari

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430141

Introduction: Moringa oleifera and related species are commonly used in folk medicine for various human diseases.

Aim: The study was undertaken to establish the thrombocytopenic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of moringa oleifera and to find the utilization of platelet parameters in determining the cause of the thrombocytopenia.

Methodology: Fresh leaves of moringa were dried and extracted with water. Thirty (30) male albino Wistar rats, weighing between 150-250 g, which were kept under uniform laboratory conditions, were randomly divided into five (5) groups (A-E), based on their weights. The control group (group A) was orally given 0.5 ml of distilled water while the treatment groups (groups B to E) were orally given 250 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg,650 mg/kg and 850 mg/kg body weight respectively of the extract, once a day, for 56days and then sacrificed. At the end of the administration, blood samples were collected from each rat and examined for platelet indices. The effects of treatment with aqueous leaf extract of moringa oleifera on the platelet parameters were compared with the control group.

Result: The rats treated with the extract, showed a decrease in platelet count and platelet crit while there was a significant increase in the platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume and immature platelet fraction, concerning the control.

Conclusion: The aqueous leaf extract of moringa oleifera is therefore shown to modulate the immune system and cause thrombocytopaenia, through platelet destruction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Films of Alprazolam

Riffat Latif, Muhammad Ashfaq

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430142

Fast dissolving oral films provide convenient, safe and simple way of drug administration. Moreover they offer improved patient compliance due to straightforward and non-invasive nature. The aim of current research was to develop fast dissolving oral films of alprazolam for treatment of anxiety disorders. Films were developed by solvent casting method using HPMC (Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose) as film former and PEG (Polyethylene Glycol) as plasticizer. All formulation (F1- F12) were assessed for various parameters including thickness, tackiness, percent elongation, folding endurance, tensile strength, contact angle, transparency, content uniformity, disintegration and dissolution times. The thickness of optimized formulation was found to be 65µm and the Tensile strength, Percent elongation, Folding Endurance, Transparency, contact angle, Assay content uniformity, Disintegration Time and Dissolution for optimized formulation were found to be 5.38%, 45%, 290 times, 100.1%, 180o, 98.65%, 20 seconds and 106.6% respectively. Drug release studies displayed 106.60% release of total drug content after time duration of 1.813 minutes. The results of the study concluded that newly developed fast dissolving film of alprazolam have potential to provide fast delivery of the drug and thereby enhanced patient compliance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Anthocleista vogelii Stem Bark in the Treatment of Jaundice on Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Wistar Rats

B. A. Olatunji, C. U. Ogunka-Nnoka

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430145

This study investigated therapeutic effect of ethanol extract of Anthocleista vogelii stem bark (EEAV) in the treatment of jaundice on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in adult wistar rats. A total of 30 wistar rats weighing between 160-200 g were distributed into 6 groups comprising group 1 (normal control), group 2 (paracetamol 2 g/Kg bw), group 3 (paracetamol 2 g/Kg bw + Silymarin 100mg/Kg bw) and groups 4-6 (paracetamol 2 g/Kg bw each + 250, 500, & 1000 mg/Kg bw of EEAV, respectively). Experiment lasted for a period of 16 days. Paracetamol induction elevated liver indices and enzyme activities. However, administration of EEAV significantly reduced (p≤0.05) these effects in groups 3-6 when compared to group 2. A significant elevation (p≤0.05) was reported in creatinine, urea, sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) when group 2 was compared with group 1. Haematological study showed that packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) levels significantly increased (p≤0.05) in treatment groups 3-6 when compared to group 2. The catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly (p≤0.05) in groups 3, 4 and 6 when compared to group 2. Liver histology showed normal hepatocytes architecture with normal central vein in group 1. Group 2 revealed a histologically distorted liver tissue while there was regeneration of hepatic cells in groups 3-6. The study revealed that EEAV could serve as potent herbal therapeutic agent in the treatment of jaundice triggered by paracetamol induction in adult wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Developement and Characterization of Floating Tablets of Nizatidine for Peptic Ulcer

Sunil T. Galatage, Suresh G. Killedar, Rushikesh B. Katakar, Ravindra B. Kumbhar, Maya Sharma, Pramodkumar J. Shirote

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430146

The objective of the present research work is to develop an ideal floating drug delivery system of nizatidine to increase the gastric residence time in stomach. To overcome the short half life and lower bioavailability of drug in tablet form we developed the drug in the form of effervescent floating tablet containing HPMC K100 and sodium bicarbonate by direct compression methodology. The prepared effervescent floating tablets were characterized by thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, in vitro buoyancy time, swelling test, in vitro study and stability study and found that all formulations showed satisfactory results with enhanced half life and bioavailability that is among all formulations F1 formulation exhibited good drug release of 95.03% & has shown floating lag time 55 sec. Finally, it was concluded that formulations of nizatidine floating tablet were successfully prepared and found prolonged drug release for 12 hours thereby getting enhanced bioavailability, patient compliance by reducing dose frequency and gastric residence time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aromatic Hydrazide Compounds That Inhibit the Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Ronald Bartzatt, Preeti Sule, Thushara Galbadage, Jeffrey D. Cirillo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430148

Aims: To demonstrate the efficacy of aromatic hydrazide compounds to inhibit growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Study Design: To synthesize tuberculostats and test their antibacterial activity in-vitro.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Nebraska, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha NE 68182, and Texas A&M Health Science Center, Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, 8447 State Hwy 47, Medical Research and Education Building, Room #3012, Bryan, TX 7780. From March 2019 to October 2019.

Methodology: Hydrazide functional groups were formed by covalently bonding hydrazine onto a carbonyl carbon that is a substituent of a single aromatic ring. Microwave excitation was utilized for synthesis, followed by evaluation of antibacterial activity. These compounds were placed into tissue culture media at various concentrations and then Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria was added, in order to determine the level of growth inhibition. Growth inhibition of the bacteria was measured as a function of compound concentration versus growth inhibition.

Results: Compounds A, B, C, and D carry hydrazide groups as a substituent to a single aromatic ring. All four compounds show zero violations of Rule of 5, indicating favorable drug-likeness. All four compounds showed greater than 50% growth inhibition of bacteria at concentrations below 50 micrograms per milliliter. Growth inhibition was measured by colony forming units and luminescence. Polar surface area, Log P, molecular volume, and other molecular properties were determined for these four compounds.

Conclusion: These four hydrazide compounds induced substantial inhibition of bacterial growth. Microwave excitation for the synthesis of hydrazide compounds is effective. These compounds have favorable drug-likeness properties and are highly effective inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Open Access Review Article

Various Challenges and Opportunities in Oral Delivery of Anticancer Drugs

Neha Kumari

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i430144

Oncology is that area of medicine where patients are usually treated intravenously. Researchers are trying to find alternative drug delivery methods of anticancer drugs due to the pain associated with conventional drug delivery methods. Studies estimate that a majority of patients (up to 89%) prefer oral anticancer medications to traditional IV fluid or injection therapies when available. Better patient compliance, tolerability, reduced cost; greatest safety and possible increased efficacy are the main reasons for increased attention towards oral delivery of anti-cancer drugs. But oral bioavailability of this class is limited because of its idiosyncratic physicochemical properties and biological barriers such as pre-systemic metabolism and gastrointestinal instability. The various challenges to oral delivery of anticancer drugs are discussed extensively in this paper including peculiar physicochemical properties, biological barriers and adverse drug-drug interactions. Further, the emerging innovations in addressing the challenges to oral delivery of anticancer drugs are discussed. These mainly include absorption enhancers and nanocarriers based drug delivery systems.