Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Participatory Learning and Action on Strengthening the Different Domains of Empowerment on Self-medication with Antimicrobials in Nyalenda Informal Settlement, Kisumu County, Kenya

Isabel Akoth Owuor, Harrysone Atieli, Collins Ouma

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i330131

Self-medication with antimicrobials (SMWA) is a common global practice. Studies in Nyalenda B Ward, an informal settlement in western Kenya, found that significant households (76.6%) perceived the practice of SMWA as convenient and appropriate. The rationale of the current study was in response to unsolved self-mediation practice through functional health literacy in such set-ups. This study used Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) as a tool and assessed its role on strengthening the different domains of empowerment on SMWA. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and data was collected from 1531 PLA trainees through focused group discussions and structured questionnaires. Results revealed that reasons for SMWA are ignorance and easier accessibility. Logistic regression analyses with a statistical significance tested at p≤0.05 established the association between PLA domains and all empowerment domains revealed that flexible learning and listening increase power within by 5 times (OR=5.361, 95% CI=3.101-9.268, P<0.0001), power with by 6 times (OR=6.160, 95% CI=3.437-11.39, P<0.00010) and power over by 2 times (OR=2.261, 95% CI=1.293-3.954, P<0.0001). Participatory evaluation may increase power within by almost 8 times (OR=7.711, 95% CI=5.184-11.459, P<0.0001), power with by 5 times (OR=5.012, 95% CI=3.375-7.443, P<0.0001), and power over by more than 3 times (OR=3.618, 95% CI=2,375-5,509, P<0.0001). Participatory interaction may increase power within by almost 8 times (OR=7.823, 95% CI=4.798-12.763, P<0.0001), power with by over 8 times (OR=8.610, 95% CI=4.987-14.866, P<0.0001.), power over by 4 times (OR=4.003, 95%CI=2.325-6.693, P<0.0001). PLA proved to be a useful tool for strengthening all domains of empowerment and integrated functions that prompted broader social connections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Susceptibility of Vernonia amygdalina against Some Strains of Candida albicans

A. D. M. Owoyale, M. Galadimma, S. Y. Daniyan, N. Adabara

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i330132

This study was aimed at determining the quantitative phytochemical analysis and antifungal susceptibility of Vernonia amygdalina against some strains of Candida albicans.  Reflux method of extraction was used for the successive extraction of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina. Quantitative phytochemical screenings were done to determine the amounts of phytochemicals that are present in the crude extracts, the study revealed that phytochemicals which include flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins and phenol were present in the crude extracts. Three different strains (P37005, RM1000 and SC5314) were subjected for antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal susceptibility test of the crude extracts against the strains were determined at different concentrations of 40,60, 80 and 100 mg/ml using agar well diffusion method. The highest zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 21.00 ±0.30 mm which was recorded for methanol leaf extract (MLE) at a concentration of 100 mg/ml against SC5314 (isolate:B3). The MIC and MFC values for the most active crude extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml for the n-hexane crude extract against strain P37005 (isolate B1), the value of 12.5 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml was also revealed for the n-hexane crude extract against SC5314 (isolateB3) however, the methanol crude extract showed a value of 12.5mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively against SC5314 (isolate:B3). The results from this study suggest that n-hexane and methanol crude extract have a better antifungal activity than the ethylacetate crude extract.  This study also validate the claim of the local herbal practitioners of the use of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina in curing candidiasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges in Providing Immunization Services amongst Community Pharmacists in South-south, Nigeria: A Cross-sectional Study

Ben Benson Agbo, Ekpoanwan Esienumoh, Simon Alain Inah, Jimmy Ebi Eko, Eze James Nwachukwu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i330133

Background: The primary aim of Community Pharmacists’ participation in immunization is to contribute towards mitigating deaths associated with vaccine preventable diseases as well as expanding access to immunisation services. However, with the increasing Nigerian population, the global targets of reducing child mortality can significantly be achieved by periodically reviewing health systems performance to identify and address existing gaps.

Objective: The general objective of the study is to identify the challenges encountered by Community Pharmacists in providing immunisation services in Calabar Metropolis of Cross River State.

Method: A descriptive cross sectional study design was adopted for the study. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire from 68 community pharmacists which were selected using the purposive sampling technique. Data generated were synthesised and analysed using SPSS (version 20.0) and results were presented in frequency tables and charts. Fisher Exact test was used to test for association between variables at 0.05 alpha level.

Results: Results showed that most community pharmacies have the resources to participate in immunization, only a few however had immunization administration record sheets 7(11.3%) and immunization record cards for patients 4 (6.5%). The finding also showed that lack of training 55 (88.7%); low awareness by the public of immunization services provided by the community pharmacist 44 (70.9%) and storage of vaccines 39 (62.9%) were the prominent perceived challenges to providing immunization in the community pharmacy. The association between lack of time (p =1.000, Fisher’s Exact test) and provision of immunization services was statistically not significant.

Conclusion: Addressing identified challenges is pivotal to increasing and expanding accessibility and utilisation of immunisation services especially amongst the populace in resource limited settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Problem-Based-Learning on Academic Learning Process of Pre-clinical Medical Students in Nile University of Nigeria

O. I. Oyeniran, T. Chia, A. O. Ajagbe

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i330134

Aim: This study aims to assess the impact of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on the academic learning process of 2nd and 3rd-year medical students in their pre-clinical years.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, between May 2018 and July 2018.

Methodology: Using a standardized semi-structured questionnaire, both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to obtain data from 53 undergraduate medical students (8 males, 45 females; age range 17-25 years), which were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 23.0 statistical package.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 15±2 SD. There are more females n=45 (84.9%) than males n=8 (15.1%). Out of the respondents, 50.9% agreed that PBL has helped them in learning and understanding basic medical science courses, 17.1% disagreed, while 28.6% were uncertain. When asked if PBL helped them in preparing for pre-clinical examinations, 38.2% disagree, while 32.4% said it helped them. Evidence from the in-depth interview (IDI) shows that some of the stated usefulness includes; making studying for examinations easier, boosting confidence level, a better understanding of lectures and clinical cases, among others. However, a few of them responded that it was not helpful.

Conclusion: Findings showed that the use of PBL has a significant and positive impact on the academic learning processes of pre-clinical medical students of Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diarrhoea and Comorbidities Seen at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Lucy E. Yaguo Ide, Balafama A. Alex-Hart

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i330135

Background: Diarrhoea illnesses continue to cause major sickness and death in children in developing countries. They often occur simultaneously in association with other illnesses as comorbidities, especially in children under five years of age. There is a dearth of literature on these comorbidities.

Objective: To evaluate the pattern of diarrhoea and associated comorbidities in children with diarrhoea diseases at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective cross sectional study carried out in the Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, between January 2011 to December 2014. The case notes of all children with diarrhoea who presented to the Diarrhoea Training Unit (DTU) and children’s emergency ward were retrieved and studied. Information sought included the biodata, type of diarrhoea, presence and level of dehydration, year and month of presentation, outcome of illness and comorbidities.

Results: There were 394 subjects, males were 215(54.6%), females 179(45.4%). Their ages ranged from 1 month to 168 months, mean age 17.1±2.8 months. Acute watery diarrhoea was the most common type 321 (81.47%), followed by dysentery 47 (11.93%). Two hundred and thirty nine (60.7%) patients had no dehydration, 37 (9.46%) mild dehydration, 107 (27.2%) moderate dehydration and 11 (2.8%) severe dehydration. Malaria was the most common comorbidity 66 (16.8%), followed by tonsillitis 65(16%) and pneumonia 45 (11.4%). Two hundred and eighteen (55.3%) were discharged following treatment and 14 (3.6%) died.

Conclusion: The commonest type of diarrhoea found was acute watery diarrhoea and malaria was the most frequent comorbidity found.