Open Access Systematic Review Article

Prevalence of Anaemia among Indian Children of Various Age Groups – A Systematic Review

H. Sorojini Devi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i430117

Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional problem affecting various age group individuals all over the world. Iron deficiency anaemia is a major health problem since it impairs the cognitive development; causes delay growth, affect immune mechanism leading to various infections from infancy to adolescence.

Objective: The objective of the present review study is to assess the prevalence of anaemia among Indian children of various age groups.

Data Source and Eligibility Criteria: A total of 10 published articles on the aspects of prevalence of anaemia, particularly, among the children of various age groups were reviewed systematically, which were collected through google search. Studies considered in the present review paper were published during 2009 to 2016 years and data were selected against predetermined inclusion and exclusion. The age groups of the children were from 0-12 and 13-16 years, which cover infant, pre-school children, school going children and adolescent girls.

Study Appraisal: Published articles on the aspects of anaemia of children and adolescent girls were peer reviewed with full one-line text available. Only the relevant studies were included to make suitable for synthesis and meaningful relationship in the present study.

Synthesis Method: Data collected from various ten (10) published articles were combined together after carefully reviewed and presented them systematically taking consideration to the year of publications, age of the children, sample size, study design and finding of the studies in a summarized tabular form.

Limitation and Key Finding: Limitations regarding the estimation of haemoglobin were found varied and data of the same group of children were not found from the different retrieved published articles. The proportion of severe anaemia among school children and adolescents were not observed in the reviewed studies.  However, the overall prevalence of anaemia could be observed in high percentages from the reported data during the year 2009-2016.

Conclusion: The key finding of this review study was   that during the early age groups of children, boys were more affected than girls, however, at the adolescent stage with the commencement of menstrual cycle, girls were more suffered from anaemia as compared with those of boys. Further, it was also observed that the highest prevalence of anaemia in Faridkot district of Punjab were 91.69% and 93.94% for boys and girls respectively [1].

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Therapeutic Approach and Outcome of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Management Strategies in Cameroon

Lukong Marie Chantal Suinyuy, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Dehayen Mesmin, Ngo Valery Ngo, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i430115

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic syndrome that is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, and can lead to chronic long-term complications. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Cameroon has been reported at 5.9% in 2017. Studies conducted in 2011, showed that only 41% of patients had a good glycaemic control which was, HbA1c < 6.5.

The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the treatment intensification with time in T2DM patients in the Yaoundé diabetic Centre in Cameroon.

Methods: The study was a cross-sectional analytical study. In a group of T2DM patients followed up at the National Obesity Centre (NOC) with poorly controlled blood sugar (HbA1c ≥ 7%). The treatment intensification and outcome were evaluated between the periods January 2016 to April 2018. The data was collected from patients’ medical booklet and through a face-to-face interviewer-administered questionnaire.

Results: One hundred and eleven patients (31 males, 27.9% and 80 females, 72.1%) were recruited. The mean age was between 59 ± 10 years and the mean duration of diabetes 8.6 ± 7.0 years. The patients’ treatment consisted: 1) oral anti-diabetic (OAD) agents, monotherapy (24.3%), bitherapy (28.8%), tritherapy 2.7%, 2) insulin only, 19.8% and 3) insulin mixture, 24.3%. The mean baseline HbA1c was 9.3 ± 2.0%. Within the given follow-up time of 16 [11-21] months, only 40 out of the 111 patients had their treatment intensified and 71 had no intensification (therapeutic inertia) despite poor HbA1c levels. Among the 40 with intensification, 5 had immediate intensification and the proportions according to intensification delay ≤3 months, 3-6 months, 6-12 months and >12 months .

Conclusion: Therapeutic inertia affected two third of our population. Despite the high level of inertia, both patients with intensified treatment and non-intensified treatment reached treatment targets.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro-Modulation of HbS Erythrocyte Parameters By Prednisolone Testing For Fe2+/Fe3+ Ratio, HbS Gelation and Osmotic Fragility

Okoye Ngozi Franca, Amadi Benjamin Achor, Okoro Miriam

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i430116

Aim: The study is targeted at the sickle cell disease. It has been discovered that some drugs or medications taken for certain ailments are either pro-sickling or anti-sickling in nature. In this study, acorticosteroid by the name of prednisolone was investigated to determineits possible effects on human haemoglobin-S gelation, erythrocyte fragility and Fe2+ and Fe3+ concentrations.

Materials and Method: The blood sample of 5ml was collected from adult male and female donors by vein puncture using a 5 ml syringe and needle. The blood samples were confirmed as HbSS using standard haemoglobin electrophoresis. Various concentrations of the drug (0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 mg/ml) were used to determine the effects on human haemoglobin-S, gelation rate, erythrocyte fragility, Fe2+& Fe3+ concentrations.  Absorbance reading was taken at 540 nm using a spectrophotometer.

Results: The results showed that Prednisolone increased haemoglobin S gelation at all concentrations (p< 0.05) when compared to the control. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio showed a reduction in haemoglobin values at 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml concentrations when compared to the control and a slight increase at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/ml. For Erythrocyte Fragility, there was destabilization of red cell in all concentrations.

Conclusion: This study suggests that this drug could have some undesirable effects on sickle cell subjects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Midline Incision versus Chevron Incision in Open Radical Nephrectomy: Quality of Life Differences

Her Bayu Widyasmara, Charles Johanes, Chaidir A. Mochtar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i430119

Objective: Open radical nephrectomy can be performed through midline or chevron incision. This study aims to compare the quality of life between midline and chevron incision in open radical the nephrectomy since comparison studies between these approach focused on quality life are still lacking.

Methods: This study includes total 31 patients that underwent open radical nephrectomy in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Indonesia. The subjects were divided into midline and chevron groups using simple random sampling. Modified WHOQOL BREF and VAS pain score were compared between these groups.

Results: Total 31 subjects included, with a male: female ratio 2.33:1 and age mean 49.81±13.1 with the incidence are highest at 41-60 years old. In our study, most subjects were diagnosed in T3-T4 with 58,07% overall. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent pathology result with 41,93% followed by Paper Renal cell Carcinoma 12.90%. VAS score is higher in Chevron group with result 2,47±1,40 compare to Midline group with 2,13±1,99. Match to the VAS score result, The Modified WHOQOL BREF Chevron group with mean 71,80±10,24 is lower than Midline group with 77,69±13,65. However, these differences are not statistically significant. The midline group was recorded two complications (IVC and spleen injury), whereas one complication (IVC injury) recorded in chevron group.

Conclusion: Both chevron and the midline are safe methods for open nephrectomy. Even the midline incision show better VAS score and quality of life, and there are no significant differences between midline or chevron incision in postoperative quality of life, VAS scores and intraoperative bleeding.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Herbal Traditional Eye Care Practices and the Development of Eye Health Promotion Strategies in Cameroon

Waindim Dorcas, Epee Emilliene, Tembe Fokunang Estella, E. A. Nshadze Joseph, Naidoo Kovin, Jyotikumarie Jaggernath, Waindim Timothy, Ngo Valery Ngo, Abena Obama Marie Therese, Fokunang Charles Ntungwen

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i430118

Herbal plants have played an important  role traditional medicine therapy of multiple human illnesses since the existence of man  in many parts of the globe .The most common eye diseases include conjunctivitis, cataract, glaucoma, eye allergies, eye inflammation. The problem of adverse drug effects of modern drugs, has led to the increased use nowadays of herbal remedies in the treatment of eye diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO), defines  traditional medicine as, the knowledge, skills and practices based on theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to diverse cultures, be it explicable or not that are used in the maintenance of health and the prevention, diagnosis, improvement and  the treatment of physical and mental diseases. In the last decade, the use of traditional medicine has gained popularity and has expanded globally. While traditional medicine is used in developing countries for primary health care, it is also being used in developed countries with advanced health care systems. Traditional medicine accounts for up to 60% of health care delivered in Cameroon, while in other African countries traditional medicine is being relied on as a result of cultural and historical beliefs and up to 80 % of the population in Africa use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs. Although, traditional medicine is widely used, issues around policy; safety; efficacy and quality control are still of prime public health concern.

Traditional eye care practices are believed to be indigenous medicines used by community members for the treatment of eye diseases or ocular problems. This is the most applied form of eye treatment in Africa and other parts of Asia and Latin America. Eye care is a public health concern in Cameroon due to late diagnosis of eye pathology and limited access to medication and affordability of prescription eye glasses. This paper attempts to review the herbal medicine practice as an alternative approach to eye treatment using traditional healing, and the development of eye health promotion strategies in the primary health care system in Cameroon.