Open Access Short Communication

Bis(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyridylseleno)zinc 3,3’-dicyanide, A Potent Antifungal Agent

V. H. Shah, A. A. Zohri, P. K. Talpara, P. A. Sangala, M. A. Abdelazim

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i230107

A novel zinc chelate of 3-cyano-4,6-dimethyl-2(1H)-selenone pyridine was synthesized and its structure was confirmed on the basis IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectral analyses and TOF mass spectrometry. Biological screening against Candida glabrata reveals a greater antifungal activity of the zinc chelate as compared to the fluconazole reference drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts on Salmonella typhi

O. F. Olukunle, O. J. Adenola

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i230104

In the genesis of using plants for treatment of diseases, Garlic and lemon grass were some of the earliest plants that have proven effective. In this study the antimicrobial effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) and Allium sativum (garlic) extracts on clinical isolate of Salmonella typhi  was examined. Water, ethanol and methanol were used as extraction solvent. Antimicrobial effects of conventional antibiotics was assayed using disc diffusion method while antimicrobial activity of lemon grass and garlic extracts were carried out using agar well diffusion method and the zones of inhibition was measured in millimeter (mm). Comparatively, the highest percentage yield of extract was observed in water extract of garlic (21.83%) and lemon grass (6.67%). Ciprofloxacin and Perfloxacin have the highest zones of inhibition of 19.73±0.24mm and 14.47±0.31mm respectively against the clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi . Two out of the twelve clinical isolate of Salmonella typhi  used were multi drug resistant. Lemon grass extracts did not show any antimicrobial effects on the clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi  while garlic extracts showed antimicrobial effect at the concentration of 800 mg/ml, water extract of garlic has the highest zone of inhibition (14.00 mm) against the tested isolates. Therefore garlic extract could be used for the formulation of drug and treatment of Salmonella typhi   infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Quantification of Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Ibuprofen in Fixed Dose Combination Drug Using HPLC with UV Detection

Emmanuel K. Darkwah, Christopher K. Acquah, Paul S. Lambon, David K. Ameko, Omotayo Akanji, John Sefah K. Ayim

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i230105

Combination therapy of analgesics is well suited for pain management especially in elderly patients and, has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Drug analysis plays an important role in the development, manufacture and therapeutic use of drug. In this study, a suitable, cost effective Isocratic HPLC-UV method (Reversed Phase) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Ibuprofen in fixed dose combination drugs, using a mobile phase combination of methanol and 0.025M Phosphate buffer –(adjusted to pH 3.2 with Orthophosphoric acid) in the ratio 85:15.A Vertex Column-Eurospher C18 (250 x 4.6 mm), flow rate of 1.0 ml/min at 25°C were the chromatographic conditions. With Piroxicam as internal standard, quantification was achieved with UV detection at 225 nm based on the peak area responses. A good resolution and a short run time (7mins) were achieved with the validated conditions. In consequence, statistical evaluation at the 95% confidence limits revealed that, the method was Linear; with an average correlation coefficient (R = 0.995), and accurate - (mean recovery 99.45% for Acetaminophen, 100.10% for Caffeine and 99.28% for Ibuprofen). With an instrument and intermediate precision RSDs>2.0, the method was found to be specific, Robust, and more economical. Six formulated combination products on the Ghana market were assayed using the validated method. The Acetaminophen, Caffeine and Ibuprofen contents in the combination drugs varied from 97.35% to 103.88%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Target-specificity and Biological Activity of Streptococcus Serum Antibody and Sulfate Amikacin Conjugates

Lingxiao Yi, Xiang Li, Wei Dong

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i230106

To investigate the target-specificity and biological activity of Streptococcus serum antibody and sulfate amikacin conjugates. The recent used polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) as the coupling agent to produce Coupled complexes of Streptococcus serum antibody and sulfate amikacin. Then, analyzed the antibody being in conjugates specificity which against Streptococcus, and the antibody being in conjugates immunogenicity. Besides, we also detected the acute toxicity, antimicrobial activity and bioavailability of sulfate amikacin being in conjugates. As a result, the antibody specific binding to Streptococcus, instead of Escherichia coil, Pasteurella and Staphylococcus aureus. Biological activity results showed that coupling decreased Streptococcus serum antibody immunogenicity, increased Streptococcus serum antibody response sensitivity. Simultaneously, the results indicated that coupling reduced the acute toxicity of sulfate amikacin, improved sulfate amikacin bioavailability and antimicrobial activity of sulfate amikacin. The combination effect on the antibacterial activity of drug and the biological activity of serum antibody is helpful for the practical application of targeted drugs.

Open Access Review Article

The Current Status of Veterinary Vaccinology: A Review

Teferi Mandado

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2019/v20i230108

This paper was done starting from February 2017 to July 2017 in Jimma University College of Agriculture and School of Veterinary Medicine. The suffering of different animal species from multiple infectious agents in and around the university leads us to be conscious and enabled us to write this scientific paper which can be acts as the source of information for Veterinary vaccinology. Louis Pasteur in the 19th century demonstrated the ability to protect chickens against fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida) and thus demonstrated the benefit of vaccination in animals and paved the way for the development of the array of veterinary vaccines which are in use today. Since Pasteur’s work, vaccination against infectious disease have been used successfully to protect animals from many serious diseases some of which were also significant risks to humans. Veterinary vaccine has a parallel way of development in research and development of vaccines in the human field vaccinology today also. Vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. Vaccine contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins. The general information concerning veterinary vaccination such as common vaccination, common methods of veterinary vaccination, principles of vaccination; standardization of veterinary vaccines, generation of vaccine, vaccine formulation, new approaches to veterinary vaccines and few other information were roughly reviewed from scientific journals, experiment results, proceedings, reference books and manuals. The objectives of this paper are to highlight the general current information of Veterinary Vaccinology and to give specific recommendations based on the facts obtained.