Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) Antimalaria Drugs on Liver Enzymes in Pregnancy

Ajibade Oluwagbenga Oyeyemi, Ayobola Abimbola Sonuga

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2018/v19i430093

Aims: Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) are employed as first-line agents in malaria chemotherapy. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of ACTs on renal function of pregnant women.

Study Design: Comparative study.

Place and Duration of Study: Pregnant women aged 18 to 50 years were recruited from antenatal clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Ekiti State Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria between 2016 and 2018

Methodology: One hundred and eighty pregnant women were grouped into three which include:  Sixty pregnant women with malaria parasite on ACT drugs (Group A), sixty pregnant women with malaria parasite not on ACT drugs (Group B), sixty pregnant women without malaria parasite (Group C/control). Plasma Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were evaluated by standard methods. The data collected were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student’s t test to compare the data between the test groups and control.

Results: Results showed there was a significant decrease (P=.05) in Body Mass Index in the pregnant women with malaria on ACT and those that were not on ACT when compared with control (24.1± 0.32 versus (25+ 2.30 vs 27± 1.62). A significant increase (P=.05) occurred in the levels of ALP,AST, ALT and LDH  in pregnant women with malaria not on ACT drugs when compared the control (168.45±0.19, 10.0±0.27, 8.19±0.25, 4.5±0.21) versus (143.20±0.12, 8.71±0.30, 5.99±0.21, 2.08±0.19),while no significant difference occurred in the levels of ALP,AST, ALT and LDH in pregnant women with malaria on ACT when compared with control (141.60±0.78, 8.02±0.32, 6.10±0.30, 2.75+ 0.20) vs (143.20±0.12, 8.71±0.30, 5.99±0.21, 2.08±0.19).

Conclusion: Normal therapeutic dose of ACT has no harmful effect on the liver in pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Characterization and In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Caralluma europaea Essential Oil and Its Synergistic Potential with Conventional Antibiotics

Loubna Ait Dra, Abdellah Aghraz, Brahim Boualy, Saadia Oubaassine, Mustapha Barakate, Mohamed Markouk, Mustapha Larhsini

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2018/v19i430094

Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from the aerial part of Caralluma europaea and to evaluate the synergistic potential between essential oil and antibiotics.

Methodology: The chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and synergetic interaction between antimicrobial agents and essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial part of C. europaea were evaluated. The chemical composition was analyzed by a Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. Antioxidant activity was measured employing three methods: scavenging of free radical DPPH, reducing power assay and the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil against microbial strains was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones diameters, and MIC values. The in vitro association between essential oil and some commercial antibiotics was also investigated.

Results: The GC/MS analysis shows that a total of 21 constituents were identified and the main compounds were Terpinolene (19.5%), α-Terpinene (16.2%) and Linalool (15.3%). Antioxidant study showed that essential oil exhibited antioxidant activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.32 mg/ml to 1.45 mg/ml. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that the essential oil had an inhibitory effect against the majority of tested microorganisms except K. pneumonia and  P. aeruginosa. Gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram-negative ones. Furthermore, essential oil approved an interesting antifungal activity against yeast species. Out of 25 combinations tested 64% showed total synergism, 20% had a partial synergistic interaction and 16% showed no effect. The best synergistic effect was obtained with the combination essential oil-gentamycin.

Conclusion: Our results are of a great importance and suggest that C. europaea essential oil contain bioactive compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties with possible applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Profiling of Solvent-mediated Phytochemical Expressions in Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina Leaf Tissues via FTIR Spectroscopy and Colorimetric Assays

Josephine Oluwagbemisola Tella, Saheed Oluwasina Oseni

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2018/v19i430095

Objective: The beneficial role of extraction solvents is often ignored, yet very important in enhancing the therapeutic potential of plant extracts. This study was carried out to comparatively characterize and profile the bioactive phytochemical compounds expressed in different solvent-fractions of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts using both colorimetric phytochemical screening assays and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

Methods: Qualitative colorimetric assays were carried out on different solvent-fractions of leaf tissue extracts from both plants to determine the comparative expression profiles of bioactive phytochemical compounds with medicinal importance such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannins, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, and reducing sugars. FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterize, and profile the presence of these compounds based on functional groups such as alcohols (O-H), saturated hydrocarbons (C-H), aliphatic fluoro (C-F), bromo (C-Br) and chloro (C-Cl) compounds, organic sulfates (S=O), esters, ethers, carboxylic acids (C-O), aromatic amines, methane nitriles (C-N), ketones, aldehydes, quinones (C=O), sulfur compounds (C=S), primary and secondary amines (N-H) with bioactive properties in the different solvent-fractions.

Results: Data were generated for methanol, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and aqueous solvent-fractions of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts. We have generated solvent-mediated phytochemical expression profiles for leaf tissue extracts of both plants based on the phytochemistry of their secondary metabolites. The methanolic solvent-fraction expressed the most phytochemicals in both plants.

Conclusion: This study has revitalized the importance of extraction solvents in optimizing phytochemical bioavailability in plant tissues. This may be responsible for variation in medicinal and biological activities reported in prior studies. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Triterpenoid Molecules Isolated from the Leaves of Combretum glutinosum Perr. Ex DC (Combretaceae)

Madièye Sene, Daouda Ndiaye, Abdoulaye Gassama, Firmin Sylva Barboza, Mbaye Diagne Mbaye, S. Y. Guata Yoro

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2018/v19i430096

Combretum glutinosum Perr. Ex DC (COMBRETACEAE) is a traditional medicinal plant, widely distributed in Senegal and Africa. The aim of that study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of two triterpenes, betulonic acid (DN7) and cabraleone (DN12), isolated from the leaves of Combretum glutinosum. Experiments were performed in acetic acid-induced contortions in mice and carrageenan rat paw oedema. DN7 (3 mg/kg, per os) and DN12 (3 mg/kg, per os) significantly prevent contortions in mice. The number of contortions is respectively 30±10 and 32±7 versus 72.6±6.64 in control group (p<0.05, n=5). DN7 (3 mg/kg, per os) significantly prevented the increased rat paw oedema (31.84±6.76 vs 92.72±6.05%) (p<0.05, n=5). DN12 (10 mg/kg, per os) induced rat paw oedema prevention similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg/kg, per os) administered in the same conditions (29.28±5.88 vs 30.96±7.25%; ns, n=5). The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of triterpenes isolated from C. glutinosum leaves are similar to those of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such acetylsalicylic acid, justifying the use of this plant in traditional medicine to manage pain and inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Different Anthropometric Measurements and Interleukin-1β, Interleukin-17, Interleukin-27 and Interleukin-35 Levels for Iraqi Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Sundus Fadhil Hantoosh, Dheaa Shamikh Zageer, Farah T. O. Al-Jumaili

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2018/v19i430098

Aims: The study aimed to study impact of type and amount of body fat distribution on interleukin-1β, interleukin-17, interleukin-27, and interleukin-35 levels and on immunologic infertility.

Study Design: The study was carried on infertile polycystic ovarian syndrome women.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed with study subjects attended consultant clinic of Higher Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies at AL-Nahrain University in Baghdad/Iraq during the period from February 2016 to April 2016.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-six infertile polycystic ovarian syndrome women were enrolled in this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist to hip ratio (WHR) measurements were calculated to all cases. Serum interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-27 (IL-27), and interleukin-35 (IL-35) concentrations were measured on cycle day 2.

Results: Significant difference in distribution according to BMI, WC, and WHR (P=0.0001, P=0.0001, P=0.04, respectively). Significant difference in IL-1β concentrations according to WHR (P=0.04). Significant difference in IL-17 concentrations according to BMI, WC, and WHR (P=0.02, P=0.03, P=0.008, respectively). Significant difference in IL-27 concentrations according to WC (P=0.03). Significant difference in IL-35 concentrations according to BMI and WC (P=0.0001, P=0.0001, respectively).

Conclusions: Amount and type of body fat distribution considerably affected and altered IL-1β, IL-17, IL-27, and IL-35 concentrations and consequently had a role in immunologic infertility.