Introduction: Substantially unproven scientifically are numerous assumed health benefits of nutmeg, moreover, a few of the scientifically substantiated research done were on the nutmeg oil and the mace. There is paucity of data based on scientific protocol on research carried out using numerable varying ranges of dosage of ground nutmeg seed.
Aims: The aim is to evaluate the effects of daily administration of ground nutmeg seed on some hematological parameters. Histological changes in the stomach were also investigated.
Study Design: Adult male albino wistar rats totaling thirty were divided into groups: A,B,C,D,E and F; each group had five rats. Group A, the control was given water and 100 g of rat feed. Groups B, C, D, E and F, were given 1g, 5g, 10g, 15g and 20 g/kg body weight, of the ground nutmeg seed, respectively, for 26 days; each mixed with 100 g of feed. Measurement of weight was done once a week. With the aid of ethyl ether, blood samples were harvested via cardiac puncture The stomachs were dissected following sacrifice, fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Data were expressed in mean and standard error of mean. 95 % level of significance (P= .05) was used for statistical analysis.
Results and Discussion: The control (group A) and the lowest dose-treated group (group B, given 1 g of ground nutmeg seed) had normal and intact histological structures of the stomach. The longitudinal gastric folds/ruggae, the surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells and parietal cells were not affected in Group C, given 5 g; but there was significant (P= .05) degeneration of simple columnar epithelium and longitudinal folds. The result also showed significantly (P= .05) degenerated simple columnar epithelium, longitudinal folds, coil pyloric glands and associated hypertrophy of the surface mucous cells and mucous neck cells in groups D, E and F, given, 10 g, 15 g, and 20 g, respectively; which were not dose dependent. There was significant (P= .05) decrease of white blood cells and dose-dependent increase in blood sugar levels in the treated groups.
Conclusion: Ground nutmeg seed when consumed in large doses alters the histology of the stomach, slightly lowers the body’s defense against infections and predisposes to diabetes.