Open Access Minireview Article

Basic Pharmacology of NG -Nitro – L – Arginine Methyl Ester

Muhanad S. Abdelwahab, Mukhallad A. M. Mohammed, H. M. Abdelwhab, Mazin S. Abdalla Mohamed, Mansour Abdelgader Bellal

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/46307

NG – Nitro- L- arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is a synthetic drug in which a quanidino is substituted for L-arginine analoques. It is a competitive enzyme inhibitor which inhibits nitric oxide synthase, hence, decreasing nitric oxide production [1].

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Hazards of Ethanolic Extract of Garcinia kola on the Testes of Adult Male Wistar Rats

E. O. Nweke, J. K. Opara, I. J. Okafor

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/46524

Background: Garcinia kola has been used in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and its importance in folkloric medicine is eminent.

Aim: This study investigated the histological effect of ethanolic extract of G. kola on the testes of male Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: A total of twenty (20) male Wistar rats weighing 170-240 g were used and were randomly divided into four groups of five animals each. Group A served as control, group B received 300 mg/kg body weight/day of ethanolic extract of Garcina kola, group C received 600 mg/kg body weight/day of ethanolic extract of Garcina kola, and group D received 900 mg/kg body weight/day of ethanolic extract of Garcina kola. The treatment lasted for 28 days and on the 29th day the animals were sacrificed and their testes harvested, weighed and fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and SPSS version 2.0.

Results: There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the relative testicular weight of animals in group D. Histopathological findings showed mild degeneration of the interstitial cell of Leydig and disorganization of the seminiferous tubule in group B, group C showed moderate degeneration and arrest of spermatogenesis and moderate apoptosis of the interstitial cell of Leydig while group D showed moderate to severe degeneration with severe arrest of the spermatogenesis and moderate apoptosis of the interstitial cell of Leydig.

Conclusion: Chronic administration of ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola has the potential of causing testicular damage and probably infertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dose-dependent Effect of Avocado Peel Hydroethanolic Extract on Antioxidant Status of Heart and Kidney Tissue Homogenates in Wistar Rats

Daniel Y. Onoja, Arthur N. Chuemere, Kolawole A. Tolunigba, Mobisson S. Kelechi, Ilochi N. Ogadinma

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/46358

This study evaluated the dose-dependent effect of avocado (Persea americana) peel hydroethanolic extract on antioxidant status of heart and kidney tissue homogenates in wistar rats. A total of 60 wistar rats were used and the study period lasted for 42 days. The animals were randomly sampled into six (6) groups; Group i -normal untreated wistar rats, ii -P. americana peel extract (50 mg/kg), iii-lead acetate (100 mg/kg), iv- P. americana peel  extract (50 mg/kg) + lead acetate (100 mg/kg), v-P. americana peel extract (100 mg/kg) + lead acetate (100 mg/kg) and vi- P. americana peel extract (150 mg/kg) + lead acetate (100 mg/kg). Biomarkers assayed for include antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase; non-enzyme antioxidant reduced glutathione; isoprostanes and malondialdehyde. The extract caused a dose-dependent increase in antioxidant enzymes and non-enzyme markers when administered alone and when combined with lead acetate most especially at doses 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg. The extract also caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in isoprostanes and malondialdehyde. From the outcome of this study, avocado peel extract has an effect on antioxidant status of both the heart and kidney, but this effect is dose-dependent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematologic and Gastric Histological Changes Associated with Administration of Ground Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) Seed on Adult Male Albino Wistar Rats

Christopher Chiedozie Mbadugha, Gabriel Donatus Edem, Uka Emmanuel, Isaac Etim Udoudo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/46509

Introduction: Substantially unproven scientifically are numerous assumed health benefits of nutmeg, moreover, a few of the scientifically substantiated research done were on the nutmeg oil and the mace. There is paucity of data based on scientific protocol on research carried out using numerable varying ranges of dosage of ground nutmeg seed.

Aims: The aim is to evaluate the effects of daily administration of ground nutmeg seed on some hematological parameters. Histological changes in the stomach were also investigated.

Study Design: Adult male albino wistar rats totaling thirty were divided into groups: A,B,C,D,E and F; each group had  five rats. Group A, the control was given water and 100 g of rat feed. Groups B, C, D, E and F, were given 1g, 5g, 10g, 15g and 20 g/kg body weight, of the ground nutmeg seed, respectively, for 26 days; each mixed with 100 g of feed. Measurement of weight was done once a week. With the aid of ethyl ether, blood samples were harvested via cardiac puncture The stomachs were dissected following sacrifice, fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Data were expressed in mean and standard error of mean. 95 % level of significance (P= .05) was used for statistical analysis.

Results and Discussion: The control (group A) and the lowest dose-treated group (group B, given 1 g of ground nutmeg seed) had normal and intact histological structures of the stomach. The longitudinal gastric folds/ruggae, the surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells and parietal cells were not affected in Group C, given 5 g; but there was significant (P= .05)  degeneration of simple columnar epithelium and longitudinal folds. The result also showed significantly (P= .05) degenerated simple columnar epithelium, longitudinal folds, coil pyloric glands and associated hypertrophy of the surface mucous cells and mucous neck cells in groups D, E and F, given, 10 g, 15 g, and 20 g, respectively; which were not dose dependent. There was significant (P= .05) decrease of white blood cells and dose-dependent increase in blood sugar levels in the treated groups.

Conclusion: Ground nutmeg seed when consumed in large doses alters the histology of the stomach, slightly lowers the body’s defense against infections and predisposes to diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological Effects and Prenatal Exposure to Crude Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Leaves on the Frontal Cortex of Growing Wistar Rats

O. O. Adeleye, A. A. Akande, A. A. Odetola

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/46182

Background: The use of medicinal plants has always been part of human culture and is common in Africa. Amongst the medicinal plants commonly used in Nigeria for management/ treatment of various types of ailments is Morinda lucida Benth.

Aims: This research work was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure of Morinda lucida on the frontal cortex in wistar rats.

Methods and Materials: A total of 25 pregnant wistar rats with an average weight of 150g were randomly divided into five groups (A-E) of five (5) rats each. Group E served as control and were given normal saline. Groups A, B, C and D were orally administered with Morinda lucida (400mg/kg) on the first, second, third and all weeks of pregnancy respectively. The litters in each group were then weighed and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 after birth. The brains were also weighed after sacrifice and the frontal cortex excised, fixed in formocalcium for routine histological techniques as well as homogenized in 0.25M sucrose solution, pH 7.4 for quantitative histochemical techniques. The photomicrographs of the frontal cortex of the control and the treated groups were observed and compared for changes and differences.

Results: The findings from this research work showed that for the brain stained with heamatoxylin and eosin the treated groups (A,B,C & D) were not different from the control group(E) in the development of their neurons as there were no alterations in their microarchitecture that is, no vacuolations suggesting cell death were seen and the cells appear well defined and also from the biochemical analysis, there are tissue damage which showed that there are no degradation, there are signs of normal development and there are proliferation and cell maturation.

Conclusion: From this study, it was found that Morinda lucida have no toxic or deleterious effect as it does not alter carbohydrate metabolism, does not cause any loss of Nissl substance and did not affect the microarchitecture of the neurons if administered during pregnancy.