Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Haematocrit, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Methaemoglobin Levels in Municipal Solid Waste Collectors (Sanitation Workers) in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

Onengiyeofori Ibama, Felix Eedee Konne

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/46187

Aim: This study was carried out to ascertain whether or not occupational exposure affects the haematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and methaemoglobin levels of municipal solid waste (MSW) collectors.

Methodology: A total of 60 male subjects were recruited for this study, out of which 30 subjects were apparently healthy and were used as the control subjects, while the other 30 subjects were municipal solid waste collectors (sanitation workers) randomly recruited during collection of solid wastes from three dumpsites in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. Out of the 30 sanitation workers, 10 subjects made use of nose masks on routine basis during waste collection, while the remaining 20 subjects did not use nose masks. Both informed and written consent was obtained from each subject. The haematocrit (HCT) was analysed using the microhaematocrit method, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) using the westergren method, and the methaemoglobin (metHb) using the colorimetric method by Lewis and Roper.

Results: The results showed a significantly lower (p<0.05) HCT, but a significantly higher (p<0.05) levels of ESR and metHb in MSW collectors as compared to the control subjects. MSW collectors who never used nose mask during waste collection had a significantly lower (p<0.05) HCT, but significantly higher (p<0.05) ESR and Methaemoglobin levels compared to MSW collectors who use nose mask routinely during waste collection and transportation.

Conclusion: From the results of this study, it is evident that occupational exposure had a negative impact on MSW collectors by affecting their HCT, ESR and MetHb levels. Therefore, we recommend that these workers be provided with personal protective equipment such as protective clothing and particularly nose mask, to prevent or reduce the inhalation of the toxic and pungently foul smell emanating from these wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extracts of Ageratum Conyzoides L. Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride – Induced Toxicity in Rats through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress

Frederick Sarfo-Antwi, Christopher Larbie, Duduyemi Babatunde

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/45189

Aims: The present study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities of 50% hydroethanolic leave extracts of the Ageratum conyzoides and fractions on carbon tetrachloride - induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Study Design: A total of 30 Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study with six groups of five animals each.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, between April 2016 and July 2017.

Methodology: Extracts were characterised by basic phytochemical screening, FTIR, GC-MS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteau assays. Hepatoprotective activities were assessed using the CCl4 model (1 ml/kg) and extracts tested at 250 mg/kg bwt and Silymarin as standard drug (100 mg/kg bwt). Serum liver and kidney function, as well as antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH, MDA and MPO) in liver and kidney homogenate were assayed. Histological examinations were made on the livers and kidneys. 

Results: Results showed the extract treatments resulted in significant increase in SOD, CAT and GSH levels and a significant decrease in MDA and MPO level against CCl4 both in liver and kidney as well as the restoration of kidney and liver function to near normal levels. Biochemical data was corroborated by histological observations.

Conclusion: The present investigation suggests that A. conyzoides crude extract possesses remarkable hepato- and nephroprotective properties and this can be attributed to the inhibitory effect on oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Compounds of Lobelia inflata Revealed Novel Potential Targets for Chronic Cough Therapy

Toluwase Hezekiah Fatoki, Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Afolabi Clement Akinmoladun, David Morakinyo Sanni

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/45276

Aim: To identify potential targets involved in chronic cough pathophysiology toward discovery and development of new therapeutants.

Methodology: This work was carried out on bioactive compounds of selected medicinal plants with reference to known therapeutic agents using computational methods which include target prediction, pharmacokinetic prediction and molecular docking.

Results: Bioactive components of Lobelia inflata exhibited therapeutic potential on the targets which include vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and sodium dependent serotonin/ dopamine receptor, while current drugs (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) targeted endothelin receptors (ETAR and ETBR) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (MCSF1R) respectively, in addition to  the well-known dihydrofolate reductase. The binding energies from the docking analyses showed that all the functional compounds of Lobelia inflata studied have strong affinity for MCSF1R followed by dihydrofolate reductase, ETBR and VMAT2. However, ambrisentan was found to be the most effective against all the targets used in this study with minimum predicted binding energy of -11.6 kcal/mol.

Conclusion: This in silico study provides an insight to the mechanism of chronic cough pathophysiology and therapy by proposing possible potential targets, as well as possible utilization and optimization of functional compounds of Lobelia inflata as therapeutants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictive Factors of Anaemia in Women in a Ghanaian Rural District

Dinah Asantewah Koranteng, Franklin Acheampong, Isaac Koranteng, Richard Adanu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/46017

Background: Anaemia is a condition of public health concern worldwide especially in developing countries. Anaemia falls in the top ten causes of morbidity in Ghana with a nationwide prevalence of about 45%. A rural district (Shai-Osudoku District), close to the capital city in Ghana, recorded a progressive increase in prevalence of anaemia from the year 2011, with the incidence higher in older women than men of the same age group. This study sought to determine the factors associated with anaemia in   women in a rural district in Ghana.

Methods: To identify the factors contributing to anaemia in older women at Shai-Osudoku District, a cross sectional study was carried out from May to June 2014. Two hundred and eighty three women, systematically sampled, were interviewed using a structured validated questionnaire, and data were obtained on the socio-demographics of the study respondents, lifestyle information and the dietary patterns with a food frequency table. Capillary blood was also obtained from respondents for haemoglobin check using a standardized Haemo Cue kit and the definition and categorization of anaemia done using the WHO Criteria. The data obtained were analysed.

Results: The ages of respondents ranged from 50-94years and their mean haemoglobin level was 11.5g/dL (CI: 11.30-11.64). The prevalence of anaemia in the population was 63% (CI: 0.57-0.68) at 95% confidence level. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with anaemia at 95% confidence level at the study District: Respondents not working OR 2.60 95% CI(1.27-5.32); respondents who depended on family and friends or pension benefits as their main source of income OR: 1.94 95% CI (1.12-3.35); respondents who had change in eating pattern OR:0. 55 95% CI (0. 32-0.97); no loss of weight (OR:0.51(CI:0.29-0.90)) and occasional consumption of fruits OR:2.21 95%  CI (1.07- 4.55)).  Having adjusted for other variables, factors found to be significantly associated were; respondents not working (p =0.01), respondents with no weight loss (p = 0.03) and the occasional consumption of fruits (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: The risk factors associated with anaemia among women in the study area were poor intake of fruits and non-working status. There is therefore the need to intensify education on healthy eating, including daily intake of fruits.

Open Access Review Article

Practice Changing Updates in Gastro-intestinal Oncology 2018

Anup Kasi, Ravi Paluri

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/46063

In this article the pivotal presentations at major conferences for gastro-intestinal cancers have been discussed. This year the presentations on Colon, pancreas and hepatocellular cancers have practice changing potential.  For metastatic colorectal cancer, fluoropyramidine plus panitumumab combination should be the preferred maintenance option for patients who have stopped oxaliplatin. The cytoreductive surgery alone showed satisfactory survival outcomes in colorectal cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Dose escalation of regorafenib showed better clinical outcomes than standard dosing regimen. Adjuvant FOLFIRINOX is the new option for selected resected pancreatic cancer patients. Neoadjuvant treatment is the new paradigm for borderline and resectable pancreatic cancer patients. Several options for advanced hepatocellular cancers now available and optimal sequencing could be challenging. The following selected presentations highlights the conference updates in gastrointestinal malignancies.