Introduction: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterised by delusions, disorganised thought and speech, hallucinations, blunted affect and reduced motivation among other clinical manifestations. Antipsychotic medications have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing symptoms and improvement in the quality of life of patients. In recent years emphasis has been shifting to using atypicals as first-line therapy primarily because of their ability to improve both positive and negative symptoms and reduced incidence of side effects. In Nigeria, there is paucity of data as to whether or not if this transition is taking place and to what extent.
Objectives: To determine the antipsychotic drugs prescription pattern, assess the extent of prescription of atypicals as well as determine level of co-prescribed medications.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study carried out in Federal neuropsychiatric hospital, Maiduguri. The sample size of 360 was used [Taro Yamane formula] and medical records were sampled using systematic random sampling. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 for descriptive statistics.
Results: There were more males [54.2%] and meant age was 36.5 ± 17.9 years. Typical antipsychotic drugs were the most prescribed accounting for 79.2% of all prescriptions. Trifluperazine was the most prescribed [56.1%] either alone or in combination, while Olanzapine and Risperidone accounted for about 20% of antipsychotic medications.
Discussion: The typicals may be cheaper and readily available but the prescribers are yet to change their habits despite evidence that atypicals are the first line recommendation. The result is a contrast to several studies in which atypicals is now extensively prescribed. Globally the use typicals declined over the last decade, and there is need to follow this trend.
Conclusion: The widespread prescription of typicals is not consistent with current recommendation, so there is need to switch to atypicals that have demonstrated better benefits to patients.
Background: Youths are referred to as people of age group 15 to 24 years, and with significant physiological, psychological and social changes that place their lives at high risk. Risky sexual behaviour is the act of indulging in unprotected sexual intercourse through oral, anal and virginal sex, having multiple sexual partners, high risk and same sex partners. The aim of the study was to determine the risky sexual behaviour among youths in selected communities in Obio-Akpor and Ikwerre Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among youths, 15–24 years in selected communities in Obi-Akpor and Ikwerre Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. The sample size of 317 participants was recruited for this study. A multistage sampling method was used to select participants from Alakahia, Choba and Aluu communities. Inclusion criteria were males and females aged between 15 and 24 years, and must have lived in these Local Governments Areas for at least one year. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. A descriptive analysis, chi-square test were performed, and regression analysis was performed to establish the strength of association between the predictors and the variables, statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Ethical clearance for the study was sought and obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria and informed consent was obtained from the participants.
Results: A total of 317 participants took part in this study, 59.3% females and 40.7% males. The result revealed 54.3% of participants aged 20 to 24 years. It indicated 77.6% engaged in RSB while 22.4% were not engaged in risky sexual behaviour. There was a significant associated between being pregnant and RSB with (p=0.008), and 83.3% of respondents who were pregnant had had abortion. Mean age of 68.8% of the respondents at coitarche was16.59±48. It showed a significant association between consumption of tobacco (p=0.000), being drunk (p=0.047), going to night clubs, visiting pornographic sites, watching pornographic videos and RSB.
Conclusion: This study concluded that RSB were; consumption of tobacco, alcohol intake, use of drug or substance before sexual intercourse, going to night clubs, visiting and watching pornographic sites and videos. The Government and community heads in Nigeria should make strict policies on consumption of tobacco, drugs and substance use, visiting pornographic sites and watching pornographic videos as this will help to reduce the negative influence on youths’ sexuality.
Some of the widely used plants for the treatment of eye diseases, especially animals, include Lepidium sativium and Rumex nervosus. Therefore, the phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts of the seeds L. sativium and leaves of R. nervosus were investigated. Freshly matured seeds of L. sativium and leaves of R. nervosus were collected, and sequentially extracted by soxhlet extractor using different polarity solvents including n-hexane, methanol, ethanol and water. The extracts were thus screened for the presence of the prominent secondary metabolites which display characteristic bioactivities. Comparatively, the methanol and ethanol extracts displayed most of the metabolites including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, glycosides and steroids. Moreover, the antimicrobial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans using agar well diffusion method. The ethanolic extracts of R. nervosus leaves showed the highest activity (18.00 mm) against S. aureus and the water extracts gave the lowest zone of inhibition (6.00 mm) against E. coli. In all the extracts, the growths of the two bacterial and fungus strains were inhibited by the methanol and ethanol extracts. The best antifungal activity was observed in the methanol extract of the seeds of L. sativium against Candida albicans (20.00 mm). The results revealed that, the ethanol and methanol extracts of both plants were the two best extractive solvents with potential inhibitory activity against microbial growth. The observed activities were related to the presence of the noticeable phytochemicals in those plants. Therefore, this finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use L. sativium and R. nervosus for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections associated to eye diseases. However, the traditional aqueous extraction practice should be modified by addition of alcohol in order to maximize the extraction efficiency and thus the bioactivity of the plants.
Background: The emergence and spread of resistance related to the irrational use of antibiotics is a major global public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards use of unprescribed drugs among adults in a selected city of Somaliland.
Methods: This study used cross-sectional survey and data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire. A purposive sampling of 400 individuals was obtained; Slovene’s Formula was used to calculate the sample size & Data was analysed by using SSPS v.20 and Ms Excel.
Results: It is found that 64.3% of the respondents used any form of medicine without a medical practitioner's prescription. It is found that there is a significant association between respondent's level of knowledge and practice of unprescribed drug use.
Conclusion: The conclusion is that it is important to formulate policies and strategies for drug distribution and sales aimed for controlling the public use of unprescribed drugs.
Aim: To determine the effect of analogy and dimerization of bioactive compounds at the molecular level on the biological functions.
Methodology: This work was carried out on a model set of bioactive compounds which consisted of resveratrol, piceatannol, isorhapontigenin, scirpusin A and scirpusin B, using computational methods which include target prediction, pharmacokinetics prediction, and molecular docking.
Results: It was observed that the increase in structural complexity reduces the solubility and gastrointestinal absorption but it does not affect the bioavailability score. The probability of target decreases with increasing structural complexity. In most of the targets, different molecular parameters were observed which exists between compound resveratrol and piceatannol as well as between scirpusin A and scirpusin B, while resveratrol, isorhapontigenin, and scirpusin B showed the related mode of molecular modulation in most of the targets.
Conclusion: The model of this study showed that natural bioactive dimer compounds have high binding affinity than its monomer in most cases and that usually with a different mechanism of action.