Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Pattern of Multiple Antibacterial Resistance In Clinical Bacterial Isolates of Wound Infections

A. N. Umo, S. S. Simeon, S. A. Adie, E. J. Mendie

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29155

The effectiveness of drugs and chemotherapeutic agents used against bacteria has recently declined due to various mechanisms used by the bacteria to prevent their actions. This study aims at detecting the mechanism of multidrug resistance in bacteria isolated from wound infections in patients attending University of Uyo Teaching hospital. Swabs from infected wounds were collected using aseptic methods. Culture and examination was done using standard microbiological techniques. Sensitivity test was done using disk diffusion technique. Curing was done using acridine orange. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant species with 43.3% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 31.67%, Escherichia coli 11.7%, Proteus sp. 8.3% and Klebsiella pneumoniae 5.0%. The overall multidrug resistance was 68.3%. The results of the study further reveal that 61.5% of Staph aureus were resistant to more than eight antibiotics with multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index ranging from 0.22-0.89. Other organisms also exhibited various levels of multiple antibiotic resistance indexes. This study shows that the prevalence of multidrug resistant organisms was high and majority of the organism isolated exhibited plasmid mediated resistance. This identification enhances the development of new approaches to overcome the problem of antibiotic resistance as this causes a huge challenge in the treatment of infections within the community where more people get infected each day.


Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women towards Management of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension in Southwest Nigeria

R. I. Fadare, O. A. Akpor, O. B. Oziegbe

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29764

The study explores the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards the management of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). It was a descriptive study, sampling technique was purposive and data was collected using a self-administered structure questionnaire. A sample of two hundred pregnant women was selected and data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Almost half of the participants were between the ages of 21 to 30 years (49.0%), with highest level of education as tertiary (58.0%) and 26.5% are currently pregnant for an average of 21 to 29 weeks. Knowledge and attitudes assessment indicated a high proportion of awareness (82.0%), hospital’s education (65.5%), and the majority (58.0%) believed that anybody can have pregnancy induced hypertension and (75.5%) relate the possible causes to eating too much salt, stress (57.5%) and over weight (49.5%). Most of the participants prefer to visit hospitals/clinics whenever they have headache (63.5%), abdominal pain (72.5%), swollen face and leg (65.5%), reduced foetal movement (77.5%), high blood pressure (65.0%), nausea and vomiting (60.0%) and blurred vision (62.5%). The study recommended that consideration be given to richer advocacy beyond creating awareness on PIH but also advocacy for women and girl children to acquire formal education so as to better appreciate modern medical services in Nigeria. Higher formal education and the urban place of residence of the participants’ accounts for increased application of knowledge on pregnancy induced hypertension; this makes them visit the clinics in the event of any observed issue in relation to their health as pregnant women.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Proximate Properties of Morinda lucida Ethanolic Extract

Oludare Temitope Osuntokun, A. M. Yusuf-Babatunde, O. O. Ige, A. E. Odufuwa

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29997

Morinda lucida is a tropical West African evergreen shrub or small to medium sized rainforest tree, having brown colored bark, white flowers and yellowish ellipsoid seeds. It is widely used in traditional medicine systems of different countries. This study was designed to carry out the preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation antioxidant and proximate properties of ethanol extracts prepared from the bark, leaves and root of M. lucida. It revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides. Furthermore, it also revealed the presence of minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, copper and phosphorus were confirmed. Anti-nutrients were also present in appreciable quantities. The anti-nutrients: Phytates, oxalates and saponins were present in different concentrations, Furthermore, the percentage of proximate content and In-vitro antioxidant potential were also estimated in this current study. The study analyzed the elemental composition, anti-nutrient and antioxidant properties of ethanol extracts of the stem, leaf and root of M. lucida.


Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS, Antimicrobial and In vitro Antioxidant Assay of the Leaf Extract of Alternanthera dentata

Doris Akachukwu, Rosemary I. Uchegbu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29855

Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of Alternanthera dentata.

Study Design: Ethanol was used to extract the plant material for GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial studies while methanol extract was used for the antioxidant study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri and Department of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, between July 2013 and December 2013.

Methodology: Dried leaves of Alternanthera dentata were extracted in ethanol for 48 hours and concentrated under reduced pressure. Five microbial isolates were used to test the susceptibility of the extract. DPPH and FRAP assays were used to test the antioxidant capacity of the plant.

Results: Eleven phyto–constituents were identified from the leaves. The most abundant compound was hexadecanoic acid (31.60%), followed by phytol (24.61%), and octadecanoic acid (10.56%). Other compounds identified in the leaves were glycerin (5.83%), levoglucosan (2.49%), alpha-D-glucopyranoside (5.21%), tetradecanoic acid (1.27%), 1-octadecyne (2.47%), octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (6.79%), 10-undeceyn-1-ol (6.67%) and hexadecanoic acid (2.51%). The extract showed low antioxidant activity compared to ciprofloxacin, used as standard while antioxidant activity of the extract was lower than that of ascorbic acid used as the standard. At a concentration of 400 mg/ml, the extract produced the optimum activity using FRAP assay.

Conclusion: This study has revealed that A. dentata is rich in many important phytochemicals which could be further isolated and characterized for drug production.


Open Access Review Article

Potentials of Plant Oils in Pruritus Alleviation

Nguyen Hoang Kieu Anh, Hoang Le Son

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30703

Aims: To offer a summarized and systemized understanding of the incorporation of plant oils in pruritus alleviation.

Methodology: Literature was searched using online databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct with the following inclusion criteria: 1) conducted/written no sooner than 1991 and published as full articles in journals; 2) each article meets the specific characteristics of its according type of therapies.

Results: A total number of 52 articles was found and 29 of which were directly enlisted into 4 categories: moisturizers, antihistamine, neuromodulators and topical cannabinoid; each was directly examined and reviewed.

Conclusion: Plant oils have high potentials in the alleviation of pruritus, with those in the moisturizers category show the most positive successful outcomes.