Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Studies of Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ficus exasperata on Selected Well Water Samples in Iworoko-Ekiti, Nigeria

F. O. Omoya, A. G. Ogunleye

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamps/2018/v18i417140

Introduction: The incidence of waterborne diseases is still on the increase among rural dwellers in the developing countries. The States owned centralized water systems are usually limited mostly to some major parts of the urban areas and other larger communities.

Aim: The present study investigated the antibacterial property of the crude ethanolic extract of Ficus exasperata on bacterial isolates from well water samples in Iworoko-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Place of Study: Four selected wells used as drinking water sources in Iworoko-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria were used for the study which was conducted between June and September, 2015.

Methodology: Bacteriological analysis of the water well water samples was determined using plate count method. Ethanolic extraction (98% ethanol) of the plant bioactive components was carried out. The crude extract was tested against the bacterial pathogens isolated from the well water samples. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts was determined using standard methods.  

Results: The in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of Ficus exasperata recorded highest zone of inhibition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.68±0.58 mm) at 125 mg/ml concentration while lowest value was noted in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition of 1.00±0.00 mm each. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae required minimum concentration of 50 mg/ml to be inhibited whereas Proteus mirabilis was inhibited at 125 mg/ml. The phytochemical components of the extract include; alkaloid (49.9.00±0.10 mg/100), tannins (0.13±0.00 mg/100), glycosides (30.93±1.41 mg/100ml), flavonoids (1.36±0.00 mg/100 ml) and phenols (0.14±0.00 mg/100 ml).

Conclusion: The results obtained in this study revealed that ethanolic extract of Ficus exasperata could serve as potential source of antimicrobial agent and this justified its uses in the treatment of various infections in folk medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Some Imported Canned Energy Drinks in Lagos Nigeria

Olaitan Olatunde James, Olaleye T. Olusola, Oderinde Olalekan, Abubakar Bawa Shagari, Oribayo Oluwafunke O

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6

Background: Energy Drink are drugs or beverage which is purported to boost mental or physical energy. The energy in these drinks is derived through a choice of stimulants, vitamins and herbal supplements the manufacturer has combined. Different brands of energy drinks are currently in high demands in this part of the country.

Aim: Trace metals (iron, zinc, manganese, cadmium and lead) were evaluated from ten brands of energy drinks using Atomic Absorptive Spectrophotometer (AAS).

Methodology: Ten brands of imported energy drinks which reflect the most popular brands consumed were sampled in triplicate from Yaba, Ojuelegba and Oyingbo markets in Lagos-Nigeria. The drinks were digested by weighing 20ml of the energy drinks into an evaporating dish and 10ml of Conc.HNO3 was added. Each metal was measured using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer which was set up according to the wavelength corresponding to that of the element under investigation. Reagent blank determination was used to correct the instrument reading.

Results: All metals, except lead and cadmium, were present at varying concentrations in the drinks. The concentration of cadmium and lead were below detectable value while. by and large, the mean value of the metals found in the energy drinks ranges from 0.040 – 0.010ppm. Zinc has the highest individual concentration of metals and it is closely followed by iron and then manganese. The Order of abundance of these heavy metals in the samples is presented as follows: zinc > iron > manganese > cadmium = lead.

Discussion and Conclusion: These results showed that there is no risk in energy drink with respect to the concentrations of zinc, iron and manganese as they were within the permissible limits set by health authorities. The trace metals in canned drinks must be monitored comprehensively and periodically with respect to the consumer health as the safety of drinks and any other edible material cannot be compromised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry of Study Moringa oleifera Leaf

F. O. Omoya, A. G. Ogunleye, K. J. Ayantola, O. A. Ajayi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9

Introduction: In recent time, high incidence of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has increased the focus and demand for medicinal plants. Moringa oleifera is among such herbs with high demand that have served as sources of therapy to both man and animal.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial property of M. oleifera and evaluate the functional groups of its bioactive responsible for its medicinal value.

Methods: The crude extracts were purified and the antibacterial screening against test isolates were determined by using standard techniques. The functional groups were recorded based on the peaks observed on FTIR spectra. The antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out in order to compare the susceptibility of the microorganisms to the five (5) different commercial antibiotics.

Results: In M. oleifera fractions, highest susceptibility was observed in Klebsiella pneumoniae (44.00±0.00 mm) whereas a lowest value (20.00±0.00 mm) was recorded against Escherichia coli. The range of zone of inhibition of the commercial antibiotics observed was from 6.80±0.20 mm to 28.67±0.67 mm with chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin respectively. The FTIR spectrum of the extracts confirmed the presence of secondary alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkenes, carboxylic acids, sulphonamide, nitro-compounds and amines.

Conclusion: These results obtained from this work justify the use of this plant in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases in human and also revealed the herbs as novel drug sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parenteral Antibiotic Use at a General Surgery Department of a Large Teaching Hospital in Ghana

Josephine Mensah, Mercy N. A. Opare–Addo, Franklin Acheampong, N. A. Adu Aryee

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/45290

Background: Inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents has been found to be common in developing countries where antibiotics are prescribed without indications and sometimes without bacteriological basis. This study evaluated the use of parenteral antibiotics at a general surgical department of a large tertiary care health facility in Ghana.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted by obtaining data on parenteral antibiotic use from computerised software records at the Surgical Pharmacy department using a pretested, specially designed data collection form. Information on parenteral antibiotic use such as name of parenteral antibiotic, dose, dosage regimen and duration of therapy were also extracted daily from in-patients' medical records using a designed data collection form. Results for culture and sensitivity testing and indications for parenteral antibiotic use were also documented. Self-administered questionnaires were then administered to 2 consultant surgeons, 6 specialist surgeons and 4 medical officers.

Results: The highest consumed parenteral antibiotic was metronidazole, with the least being amikacin. The mean number of parenteral antibiotics administered per patient was 2.03 (SD±0.64) while the mean duration of administration was 4.23 (SD±1.36) days. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to 94.1% of patients operated upon. The commonest parenteral antibiotic administered as monotherapy was co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin +clavulanic acid). A combination of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole was administered to 54.5% of patients and 76% of patients who received surgical prophylaxis. Culture and sensitivity tests were conducted in only 6 (1.6%) of the patients. Two-thirds of the prescribers requested for culture and sensitivity tests in less than 25% of their patients, while over 90% of the surgeons indicated that prescribing decisions were based on previous experience. Almost all the patients (96.4%) had at least one drug-related problem with their prescriptions that required intervention. These problems were wrong drug choice (2.1%), dosing problems (48.2%), drug use problems (49.6%) and adverse reactions (0.1%).

Conclusion: Parenteral antibiotics were frequently used and prescribers rely more on experience than laboratory investigations. There were also drug-related problems identified including wrong drug choice, wrong doses, drug use problems and adverse drug reactions that required clinical interventions to prevent them from reaching patients. This has implications for the development of antibiotic-use policy to promote rational antibiotic use in surgery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Anti-diabetic Properties of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Bridelia stipularis L. on Alloxan Induced Type-2 Diabetic Rats

Abdus Sobahan Khan, Rajibul Islam, Md. Jahir Alam, Muhammed Mahfuzur Rahman

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/45396

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that is associated with insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Its development is directly connected with not only carbohydrate metabolism but also primarily on lipid metabolism. Oral hypoglycemic agents have been found with some serious complications which are major clinical problems. Treatment of DM with medicinal plants and plant based traditional medicine is a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control with a fewer side effects. The present study investigated the antidiabetic effect of Bridelia stipularis L. leaves on alloxan induced type-2 diabetic rats.

Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150mg/kg) in SD rats of either sex and was divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each. Ethanolic extract of leaves from Bridelia stipularis (BS 250 and 500mg/kg) and glibenclamide (10mg/kg) were orally administered once daily for 21 days in the treatment and standard group respectively. Blood glucose levels were measured on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of oral treatment. OGTT was performed on type-2 diabetic rats and at the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for the measurement of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL), S. creatinine ALT and AST levels.

Results: Result of acute study (OGTT) showed significant effect (p<0.001) after 120 minutes at 500mg/kg dose. After 21 days treatment with BS at 500mg/kg demonstrated a significant improvement (p<0.001) in the blood glucose level. The BS extract also significantly lowered TC (p<0.001), TG (p<0.001), LDL-C (p<0.001) levels and improved HDL-C insignificantly in hyperglycemic animals. Oral administration of BS significantly reduced the serum creatinine (p<0.001), ALT (p<0.001) and AST (p<0.001) levels when compared to the vehicle treated diabetic control group. The standard drug (glibenclamide) showed significant effect (p<0.001) on all the parameters. These findings ensured marked improvement of the pancreatic islet cells indicating antidiabetic effect of BS extract.

Conclusion: Our observations strongly suggest that ethanol extract from the leaves of B. stipularis has antidiabetic properties, which is mediated by hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects. Further studies are suggested to investigate the mechanisms of antidiabetic action of the plant.