Androgenic alopecia is the common type of non-scarring hair loss affecting the scalp in both males and females with genetic pre-determined. Platelet-rich plasma is a preparation of platelets in concentrated plasma. This method is applied for treating different types of alopecia. The present study includes 24 female Libyan patients with androgenic alopecia female pattern. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in treating androgenic alopecia in female Libyan patients with curly hair.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during October 2015 to August 2016 on 24 female Libyan patients with androgenic alopecia female pattern; most of them had have curly hair type, and the age group between 28-46 years, with a mean age of 34 years. All the patients were considered for platelet-rich plasma therapy, suffered from androgenic alopecia. They were chosen based on the fact that various hair loss treatments were previously used without evident improvement. Prior to platelet-rich plasma treatment, written consent was obtained from the patients. Additionally, the patients were haematologically and serologically investigated. The study began by conducting the hair pull test, followed by injecting platelet-rich plasma of a total volume (2-4cc) in each visit with an insulin syringe over affected areas of the scalp and treatment was repeated every three weeks for four sessions. The improvements of patients were evaluated at the end of 16 weeks.
Results: The patients between the first and fourth session were found with a good reduction in hair loss. Pictures showed a moderate improvement of the hair restoration and coverage. Hair loss was marked per cm2, after the complete treatment of platelet-rich plasma. Hair count number per cm2was found to be increased per cm2, and hair growth was noticed clinically. A good reduction in hair loss was observed especially after the fourth session. Prior to the treatment of platelet-rich plasma, 22 patients (91.6%) had a positive hair pull test while after the treatment; the pull test was negative for 16 patients (67%).
Conclusion: Administration of platelet-rich plasma had a significant effect on female pattern hair loss, and it is a safe, biocompatible and low-cost treatment. It is a highly effective option for treating androgenic alopecia in female Libyan patients with curly hair type. Overall, the patients showed a good satisfaction, suggesting that the treatment has a beneficial role in hair restoration, thus increases the appreciation of the platelet-rich plasma treatment.
Aim: The aim of this work was to increase the bioavailability of linagliptin, a BCS class-III drug, by improving permeability. For this purpose, linagliptin loaded different non-ionic surfactant vesicles were formulated and evaluated using statistical optimization.
Methods: Two independent variables selected were surfactant span 60 (X1), cholesterol (X2) and three dependent variables were evaluated like percent drug entrapment efficiency (Y1), percent drug content (Y2) and percent cumulative drug release (Y3) respectively. Based on the central composite design of user-defined design, nine batches of non-ionic surfactant vesicles (Niosomes) were prepared by thin film hydration method (TFHM) and modified ether injection method (MEIM) each respectively. The relation between the dependent and independent variables was drawn out from the mathematical equation and response surface methodology (RSM). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA.
Results: Microscopic observation confirmed that all particles were uniform in size and shape. Particle size of non-ionic surfactant vesicles measured by SEM was between 10μm to 100μm that given the evidence of large unilamellar vesicles formed by TFHM. In vitro dissolution studies were carried out in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) for 8 hours according to the USP paddle method. The maximum and minimum drug releases were observed as 85.5% and 79.65% from non-ionic surfactant vesicles respectively, after 8 hours. Release kinetics was studied in different mathematical release models to find out the linear relationship and release rate of the drug. The FTIR studies have been done to confirm no interaction along with drug and polymer. In this experiment, it is difficult to explain the exact mechanism of drug release. But the drug might be released by fickian diffusion as the correlation coefficient (
Aims: The study was aimed at comparative evaluation of body weight changes and the serum growth hormone level in female lactating Wistar rats treated with normal saline, metoclopramide olanzapine and risperidone.
Study Design: A total of twenty (20) Female Wistar rats weighing between 140-180 g were used for the study. The study was an experimental study carried out on lactating rats. Treatment started three days after parturition. Two atypical antipsychotic drugs were administered orally and their effects compared to that of a normal control group and a positive control.
Methodology: Group I served as the control and was administered 2 ml/kg normal saline. Group II received metoclopramide (5 mg/kg b.w) while group III received olanzapine (5 mg/kg b.w) while group IV received risperidone (5 mg/kg b.w). Administration was carried out by oral gavage using an oral cannula, for the period of fourteen (14) days at 06:00 h daily. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected using a 5 ml syringe through cardiac puncture and the sera obtained was used for growth hormone analysis. The weight (g) of the experimental animals were recorded using a digital weighing balance at 06:00h for days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 14.
Results: There was a significant increase in mean serum growth hormone concentration (P<0.05) in the metoclopramide treated group; (19.35±1.14 ng/ml) compared to normal control; (11.53±1.64 ng/ml), olanzapine treated; (11.28±0.35 ng/ml) and risperidone treated; (11.30±0.70 ng/ml). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the olanzapine and risperidone treated groups compared to the normal control (P> 0.05).There was no statistically significant difference (P> 0.05) observed in the body weight changes although at day 14, metoclopramide showed the highest increase (180±1.30 g) compared to the normal control (172±1.83 g), olanzapine (173±2.30 g) and risperidone (175±3.80 g).
Conclusion: Metoclopramide at a dose of 5 mg/kg significantly increases serum growth hormone level (ng/ml) compared to olanzapine and risperidone in female lactating Wistar rats, with a non-significant increase in body weight of the dams.
Background: Drug interactions continue to be an important cause of adverse effects, especially with cardiovascular drugs.
Objective: This cross-sectional observational study aimed to recognize the frequency of potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) using three electronic knowledge bases (KBs); Lexicomp®, Micromedex®, and the free Drugs.com®, compare the inclusion and gradings of pDDIs in these three KBs and to identify associated risk factors.
Methods: Medication orders of 125 patients in the cardiovascular department and its intensive care unit (ICU) of Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt were screened for pDDIs.
Results: About 88.8% of the patients were prescribed five or more drugs. A sum of 1206 pDDIs was found which comprised of 245 different interacting pairs. Overall, 96.8% of the patients had at least one pDDI. Moderate risk pDDIs represented the most frequent risk level at 72.24%. Statistical analysis of data by multivariate regression has shown that the number of drugs prescribed could significantly predict the number of pDDIs (p<0.001). This was confirmed by bootstrapped Spearman's correlation (rs(123)=0.808; bias-corrected and accelerated [BCa] 95% confidence interval, 0.719–0.873; p<0.001). Drugs.com® alerted the largest number of pDDIs. Both Drugs.com® and Lexicomp® have shown that most prevalent pDDIs were moderate and that contraindicated were the least, while the major grading was the largest in Micromedex®.
Conclusion: A high prevalence of pDDIs was detected, and polypharmacy was a major risk factor. Physicians need to determine the most relevant approach to check for pDDIs while balancing between excessive alerting and overriding of interacting drug pairs. the Integration of medication review guidelines and computerized alert systems should be considered.
Aims: The study aims to determine the antibacterial efficacy of Prunella vulgaris plant produced by micropropagation method.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out during May and June 2018 at Kütahya Dumlupınar University Biotechnology Laboratory and Manisa Celal Bayar University Microbiology Laboratory.
Methodology: Shoot explants isolated from in-vitro germinated sterile plantlets were cultured in MS medium containing 3 mg/l BAP and 1 mg/l IBA. The plantlets have been subculture for 10 times at an interval of two weeks and harvested. The plantlets were dried in the shade at room temperature for antibacterial activity studies. Ethanol and chloroform extracts from micropropagated plants were assayed against nine bacteria species (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Salmonella typhimurium CCM 5445, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6896, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047, and Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341). Penicillin G, novobiocin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin as test antibiotics were used for comparison.
Results: Extracts of P. vulgaris showed 20 to 28 mm inhibition zones against Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhimurium.Prunella vulgaris found more effective on gram-positive bacteria in compared to gram-negatives.
Conclusion:Prunella vulgaris found more effective on gram-positive bacteria than gram-negatives. The present investigation clearly indicates that the antibacterial activity varies with the P. vulgaris. Further, the active phytocompounds of this plant against some bacteria should be characterised, and their toxicity should be evaluated in in-vivo.