Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Teachers Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Persons with Epilepsy: There is Need for Educational Interventions

Eshiet Unyime Israel, Ukpanah Mkpoikana Ini

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/42530

Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders globally. The discrimination and social stigma that surround epilepsy are in many cases a greater burden than the seizures itself. Students with epilepsy often find themselves confronted with social barriers that prevent them from academic achievements. This is in addition to the limitation that the disease itself has already placed on them. School teachers play a central role in determining access to education of the students living with epilepsy and may mediate epilepsy-associated stigma. Teachers' knowledge regarding epilepsy is an essential element of the educational experiences of people with the condition. A proper assessment of the knowledge and attitudes of schoolteachers is therefore pertinent to help identify the need for educational interventions.

Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the knowledge, attitude and practice of teachers towards persons with epilepsy to determine the need for an educational intervention.

Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study using validated and pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires to interview teachers working in selected primary and secondary schools in Uyo, Nigeria.

Results: 66.5% of the teachers had poor knowledge of epilepsy. 34.1% of them had a negative attitude towards people with epilepsy. Only 22.3% of the teachers could provide appropriate first aid management measures for epileptics during seizure episodes. Sociodemographic variables such as gender, years of teaching experience, level of teaching and school category had no significant impact on the teachers’ knowledge of epilepsy. However, positive attitude towards persons with epilepsy was significantly associated with the years of teaching experience and the level of teaching.

Conclusion: The knowledge of epilepsy amongst the teachers is poor. The level of negative attitude amongst teachers towards people with epilepsy is worrisome. There is a dire need for educational interventions by healthcare professionals. Pharmacists can and should play a leading role in this regard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Prescription Pattern in Bacterial Opportunistic Infections among Patients Stabilized on HAART in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in North-East Nigeria

Paul Otor Onah, Siyaka Abdul Lateef, Aliyu Ya’uba Kaigamma

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/40476

Introduction: The violent insurgency in northeast Nigeria has uprooted people from their homes and means of livelihood and has made it increasingly difficult to afford the cost of HIV/AIDS care services. Bacterial infections are the most frequently encountered opportunistic infection among patients stabilized on highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]. It is critical that antibiotics remain affordable to ensure patients can have financial access to effective treatment.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of bacterial opportunistic infections, identify commonly prescribed antibiotics and quantify the cost of antibiotic treatments.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective carried out in 600 bed University of Maiduguri teaching hospital. A sample size of 360 (Andrew Fisher method) was used for the study. Data was obtained from randomly selected medical records of patients on HAART.  Data were entered into SPSS 21 for descriptive statistics.

Results and Discussion: Bacterial opportunistic infections accounted for more than two-thirds of all infections (65.4%) and the majority has been on HAART for 5 – 10 years. The most prevalent bacterial infections were upper respiratory tract infections, sexually transmitted and urinary tract infections accounting for 74.6% of all bacterial infections. Antimicrobial therapies using generic brands cost less than half of the cost of innovator brands. It would take 1 – 14 days of wages of the least paid a government employee to afford treatment of an episode of bacterial infection thus making it unaffordable.

Conclusion: Bacterial infections remain a significant source of morbidity and treatment is largely unaffordable to the majority of patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mitigations in Selected Hemostatic Parameters in Administration of Graded Doses of Dexamethasone and Its Blockers on Wistar Rats

E. K. Nwangwa, E. I. Ekhoye, E. N. Ekene, M. O. Oyovwi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/41654

, might be more potent and less likely to cause side-effects than any other known corticosteroid medication. This study investigated the possible changes in selected hemostatic parameters [clotting time, bleeding time, platelets count and fibrinogen level] in albino wistar rats, following administration of graded doses of Dex. Forty-two (42) male albino Wistar rats were randomly grouped into seven (7) of six (6) rats each. With Group A receiving normal diets (Control), Groups B – G were respectively given 0.1 mg/Kg of Dex, 0.3 mg/Kg of Dex, 0.1 mg/Kg of Dex + 33 mg/Kg of Ketokonazol (Keto), 0.3 mg/Kg of Dex + 33 mg/Kg of Keto, 0.1 mg/Kg of Dex + Vitamin (Vit.) E and 0.1 mg/Kg of Dex. + Vit E. following two-weeks administration period, rats were euthanized and blood samples obtained by cardiac puncture under diethyl ether to determine hemostatic parameters. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that Dex, in higher doses decreased bleeding and clotting time, with significant increase (p < .05) in platelet and fibrinogen counts. However, Vitamin E and Ketoconazole treatment reversed this effect by increasing bleeding and clotting time withdecreased fibrinogen levels and platelet count. Thus, study demonstrates that Dexamethasone affect hemostasis by significantly decreasing bleeding and clotting times, and also enhances hemostatic function with significant increase in fibrinogen and platelet count which may predispose to thrombotic disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Treated with CSE-1034: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Anand Dharaskar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/42703

Background & Aim: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is an acute necrotizing infection of upper urinary tract characterized by the presence of gas in renal parenchyma and peri-renal tissue. We report a case of diabetes mellitus with renal calculi who was diagnosed with EPN due to E. coli. Early recognition of the infection prompted the management of patients with aggressive medical management.

Results: The patient was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotic CSE-1034 (Ceftriaxone/Sulbactam/EDTA) in combination with DJ stenting.

Conclusion: Conclusively, this case report emphasizes that early diagnosis and appropriate therapeutical management which includes CSE-1034 in this case is a key to good prognosis in EPN.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Ocimum gratissimum Leaf Extract on Lipid Profile of Experimentally-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia Animal Model

Melvin Nnaemeka Ugwu, Mary Achi Mgbekem, Mbeh Ubana Eteng

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/43113

Background: Benign Prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent disease among older men and a substantial public health problem. We investigated leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) effect on lipid prolife in BPH.

Methods: BPH was induced in male rats weighing 200-300g through exogenous administration of testosterone and estradiol. Thirty (30) rats were divided into five groups. Four groups received subcutaneous injections of the two hormones and one group was used as a control with injections of hormones. Groups I to II were administered orally with different doses of extract and group III received standard drug, group IV was not treated and group V served as normal control. After Thirty-five days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and blood collected through cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. The prostate were harvested and weighed.

Results: In rats treated with extract and standard drug a significant decrease in the size of the enlarged prostate was observed (P<0.05) when compared with the BPH control group. Weight gain was observed in rats treated with extract and finasteride. The level of cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C were significantly reduced while HDL-C increased when compared to the BPH control.

Conclusion: The significant reduction of cholesterol, LDL, VLDL-C and increase in HDL-C in the treated groups supported by decline in prostate weight suggest that the extract have the capacity of managing the lipid alterations caused by induction of BPH in rats.