Open Access Original Research Article

Hydroethanolic Extracts of Ficus pumila Linn. Is Protective against Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Damage in Rats

Christopher Larbie, Portia A Siaw, Solomon Zon, Kwame Appiah-Kubi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/41291

Ficus pumila Linn. has been reported to be rich in phenols, hepatoprotective and antiproliferative on leukemic cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of hydroethanolic leaves extracts of F. pumila on gentamicin-induced kidney damage in rats. Twenty-seven female Wistar albino rats were divided into 9 groups (n=3). Group 1 being normal; group 2 was the gentamicin (GM) induced only (80 mg/kg b/w ip for 5 days); groups 3, 4, & 5 rats were treated with gentamicin (80mg/kg b/w ip for 5 days) and F. pumila extract at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg b/w orally respectively; groups 6, 7 & 8 rats received the extract only (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg b/w orally) respectively and group 9 being gentamicin and silymarin (100 mg/kg b/w orally) for 21 days. Blood samples were taken 24 hrs after the experimented period and biochemical and haematological parameters were analyzed. GM nephrotoxicity was characterized by significantly increased levels of serum creatinine, urea, sodium, potassium and WBC, while reduced RBC, HGB, MCH and MCV levels compared with normal group. Rats treated with gentamicin and the extract showed a significant reduction in the levels of these markers. The results suggest that hydro-ethanolic extract of Ficus pumila leaves protect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in female Wistar albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Chlorotoxin on Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in Melanoma and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Sowale O. Ayomide, Gregory E. Oko, Collins C. Chukwu, Khuyen T. K. Vo, Emmanuel P. Okoi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/42129

Matrix metalloproteinases-2 belongs to gelatinase group of MMP family which are endopeptidases involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, elastin, fibronectin or proteoglycans. MMPs play crucial functions in physiological processes such as embryogenesis, wound healing, and pathogenesis of many diseases such as cancer inflammatory, liver and neurological diseases. Scorpion venom peptides are promising drug candidates for cancer treatment, especially chlorotoxin commonly extracted from Israeli Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpion giant. Chlorotoxin specifically binds to the surface of glioma cells through its principal Cltx receptor – MMP-2 and impairs their ability to invade. This study investigated the expression of MMP-2 in breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-436) and melanoma cancer cell lines (A375). Although both of cell lines (A375 and MDA-MB-463) were cultured in DMEM and RPMI media containing fetal calf serum and penicillin/streptomycin, A375 cells grew faster than MDA-MB-436 cells because A375 cells covered 80% of the area of the T-75 culture flash within only 2 culture days compared to 3 days of MDA-MB-436 cells. Enzyme collagenase was used in gel electrophoresis with pre-made zymogram gel. The catalytic cleavage of the collagen in gel zymography indicated pro-MMP-2 at 72 kDa and activated MMP-2 at 68 kDa. In addition, there was no active response of MMP-2 in the presence of chlorotoxin recorded on pre-made zymogram gel, which highlights inhibitory action of chlorotoxin on MMP-2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Association between Anthropometry and Dental Caries among Nigerian Young Adults: A Case Control Study

A. O. Adejumo, O. Ogunlade, E. O. Ozeigbe, A. M. Oluwadaisi, M. A. Asafa

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/42186

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between anthropometric parameters and dental caries among young adults in Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria.

Study Design:  This was a cross-sectional case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Physiological Sciences and University Health Centre, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife between December 2015 to December 2016.

Methodology: Ninety-two university students aged 18-35 years were recruited for the study. The participants were classified into two groups (cases and control) which were age-and sex-matched. The cases were 46 students with dental caries while the control were 46 students without dental caries. The weight and height of the participants were measured using standard health scale and were utilized for the estimation of the Body Surface Area (BSA) and Body Mass Index (BMI). Dental caries status was assessed using Decay Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. A dietary chart was utilized to assess the dietary patterns of the participants. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The mean values of BSA (m2) in cases and controls were 1.67±0.17 and 1.66 ± 0.16 (t = .37; P= .71) while the mean values of BMI (kg/m2) for cases and controls were 22.56 ± 3.84 and 22.35 ± 3.34 kg/m2 (t = 0.29; P= .78). There was a significant association between BMI classes and caries status (x2 = 10.00; P = .01). More participants with caries were overweight. Caries was significantly linked with high caries diet (x2 = 53.49; P = .001).

Conclusion: In conclusion, this study established that there was a significant association between body mass index classes and caries status. Overweight and high caries diet contributed significantly to caries formation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Selected Medicinal Plants from Southern Nigeria

Ibrahim Katampe, Mercy Useh Uwem, Useh Uwem Jonah

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/39382

Several indigenous and forgotten plants in the southern parts of Nigeria according to folklore possess many medicinal properties. Ethanol and aqueous extracts from six (6) of such plants namely Boerhavia diffusa; Datura stramonium; Cassia occidentalis; Scoparia dulcis; Euphorbia hirta and Baphia nitida from the southern Nigeria State of Akwa-Ibom were evaluated for both phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH inhibition method. Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of all the plants indicated the presence of flavonoids while the ethanolic extracts of all the plants indicated that tannins and alkaloids were present. Cassia occidentalis and AOU, indicated relatively the highest DPPH scavenging activity at lowest concentrations (0.03125 mg/ml) with AOU indicating 71.22 mg/ml an equivalence of 87% performance with respect to ascorbic acid. Results showed that when tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi bacteria, the average inhibition zones ranged from 10.5-18.7 mm,10.5-18.3 mm, 10-19 mm respectively, with the ethanolic extracts, in general, showing the highest inhibition. Interestingly none of the plants showed inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. With respect to fungus Candida albican, where there was activity, the inhibition zone was 10-15.3 mm. Ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta indicated the highest inhibition of 19 mm against Salmonella typhi.

Open Access Review Article

The Atraumatic Metatarsal Fracture: A Clinical Sign of Bisphosphonate-Associated Bone Fragility

W. Banks Hinshaw, Jennifer P. Schneider

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/42283

Beginning with some of the earliest publications suggesting the association between bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis and coincident skeletal fractures, the wide range of fractured bones reported have included the metatarsals. This paper presents a survey of the medical literature describing this association. Evidence is offered supporting definitions of inclusion rather than exclusion in seeking to define bisphosphonate-associated fractures. In addition we question the recent trend toward attributing fractures of the metatarsal as well as at other sites to "holidays" from bisphosphonate and other strong antiresorptive drugs. A 2018 paper proposed that the increased metatarsal fracture risk that persists years after stopping bisphosphonate therapy may be explained by the cessation of the antiresorptive drug. We propose instead that the frequency of this association justifies the inclusion of a prevalent or subsequent metatarsal fracture as one of the optional minor features defining the bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fracture.