Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity Studies and Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extract of Cissus aralioides Plant

Nwogueze Bartholomew Chukwuebuka, Anachuna Kenneth Kelechi, Eke Chidinma Nwanneamaka, Ufearo Chibueze Stephen

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/41425

Toxicity investigation are employed in animal models to examine the dose level for the treatment of different disease for drug efficiency while phytochemicals are naturally occurring components found in medicinal plants containing varying colour, flavor and smell which serves for plant’s natural defense system. This study examined toxicity studies and phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of Cissus aralioides plant. The phytochemical assay was screened for alkaloid, saponin, tannin, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoid, cardiac glycoside, proteins and reducing sugar in plant extract of C. aralioides with standard procedure. Eighteen (18) of the animals were used for LD50 study of Cissus aralioides using Lork’s method. Results of phytochemical screening of aqueous leaf extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, proteins, reducing sugar, saponin, terpenoid and cardiac glycoside. The acute toxicity showed LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Hence, the aqueous leaf extract of C. aralioides is relatively safe when administered through oral route in the wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Small Molecule Compounds Targeting the Bacterial Cell Wall for Bacterial Growth Inhibition

Ronald Bartzatt

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/41548

Aims: To determine the influence of molecular properties upon the effectiveness of four peptide compounds to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli and show the potential of small molecule peptide drugs.

Study Design: Examine molecular properties and extent of bacterial inhibition. Utilize numerical analysis to identify underlying relationships of molecular properties. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, between January 2018 and April 2018.

Methodology: After studying the synthesis and evaluation of four compounds having amino acids substituent groups for their antibacterial activity, in vitro, the molecular properties were determined and analyzed by various methods of numerical analysis. The numerical methods included correlation, ANOVA, Grubb’s test, path analysis, and multiple regression. Two-dimensional plots revealed relationships among trends in molecular properties and bacterial growth inhibition.

Results: Compounds 1 and 2 have –D-alanine-D-alanine substituent covalently bonded to the carbonyl carbons of aspirin and nicotinic acid, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 have –glycine-D-alanine-D-alanine substituent bonded to the carbonyl carbon of aspirin and ibuprofen, respectively. Rule of 5 indicated that all four compounds have favorable drug-likeness (i.e. zero violations of Rule of 5). The bioactivity evaluation indicated compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 fall within the drug-likeness and biological activity of ion channel modulator, kinase inhibitor, protease inhibitor, GPCR ligand, and enzyme inhibitor. All four compounds showed significant growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, in vitro. Path analysis indicated that Log P, number of oxygen and nitrogen atoms, and number of rotatable bonds have highest causal relationship to the growth inhibition of bacteria. 

Conclusion: Values of bioactivity and Rule of 5 showed that all compounds have favorable drug-likeness. Peptide-type compounds show promise for application in the clinical treatment of bacterial infections. This study provides evidence for which molecular properties are most important for the level of growth inhibition observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Audit of Admissions and Outcome of Patients with Burns in the Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

U. U. Johnson, S. E. Ibeanusi, B. M. Kejeh

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/41743

Background:  Oil exploration activities in the Niger Delta region may increase the risk of burns, and may occasionally require admission into the Intensive Unit. The pattern of admission of patients with Burns into the Intensive Care Unit in the hospital does not appear to follow any stipulated guidelines.

Aim: To evaluate the pattern of burns admission in the Intensive Care Unit and to determine if the admissions influenced the outcome.

Materials and Method: A retrospective study of admissions in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) was carried out between January 2007 and December 2015. Data on age, sex, type of burns, indication for admission into the ICU, length of stay in the ICU and outcome at the point of discharge of the patients from the ICU was collected. The data was managed using Microsoft Excel version 2013 and analysed using SPSS for windows version 20. Descriptive and analytical statistics based on the observations were generated and presented as considered appropriate.

Results: The total ICU admissions were 1258 out of which 127 (10.09%) were patients with burns, with the male to female ratios of 1:1. The average age was 25.3years. The Burn injuries resulted from explosions of Petroleum product in 55 cases (43.3%). One patient (1.56%) was admitted for hot liquid burns.  Majority of the patients were admitted into the ICU because of the severity of injuries, inhalational burns (n= 48; 37.8%) and social reasons (n = 23 (18.1%). The length of stay in the ICU ranged between 1 day and 45 days. Ninety-seven of the admitted patients (76.37%) died in the ICU.

Conclusion: Admissions into the ICU in the Hospital did not follow any identified pattern or followed any stipulated guideline. Mortality for burns patients admitted in ICU was relatively high when related to the total burn surface area. ICU admission of some of the patients did not improve outcome instead increased pressure on the limited available personnel and material.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study to Assess and Evaluate Prescribing Patterns of Antihypertensive Drugs in Medicine Ward of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital at Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences, Ballari, Karnataka

Nisi Grace Kuriakose, Ramesh Bhandari, B. L. V. Krishna Sai, E. Jayalakshmi, P. Reddy Teja

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/41622

A prospective observational study was carried out for the period of six months in inpatient department of General Medicine ward of a tertiary care teaching hospital at Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences, Ballari, Karnataka.

Objective: To assess and evaluate Prescribing Patterns of Antihypertensive Drugs.

Results: A total of 200 subjects were covered during the study period. Out of 200 subjects, 88 were males (44%) and 112 were females (56%). Prevalence of hypertension was more in the age group of 60-79 years [(n=90), 45%]. The patients were categorized depending on the stages of hypertension that they met. 45 patients (22.50%) belonged to the pre-hypertension stage, 56 patients (28%) belonged to stage – 1, hypertension, and 99 patients (49.50%) belonged to stage – 2 hypertension. The results revealed that the maximum number of patients 92 underwent dual therapy, followed by 79 monotherapy, 27 triple therapy and 2 of the patients were treated with more than three drugs. The study showed that 39.5% were prescribed with a single antihypertensive agent, 46% with two, 13.5% with three and 1% with more than three agents.

Conclusion: Most of the prescriptions were rational, but further improvement is needed. Further studies focused on the rationale for the choice of drug based on demographic data, economic status, associated conditions and complications would give additional insights into prescribing patterns in hypertension in India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Antidiabetic Potentials of Leaf Extracts of Salacia lehmbachii, Tetracarpidium conophorum, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Glibenclamide in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Essiet Grace Akanimo, Ogbonna Onyemaechi John, Omoregha Charles Uwaifiokun, Okon Aniefiok Etim

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/28981

Diabetes mellitus is a global public health disorder that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. In this study the comparative effects of the antidiabetic potentials of Glibenclamide and three well known plants used by our locals in the management and prevention of diabetes was elucidated. DM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan at a dose of 100 Mg/Kg bodyweight. The rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=5). Group 1 is the normal control, fed with normal saline orally daily for 3 weeks. Group 2 is diabetic control given normal saline orally for 3 weeks. Group 3 is diabetic rats treated with leaf extracts of T. conophorum at concentrations of 50 mg/kg body weight orally for 3 weeks. Group 4 is diabetic rats treated with leaf extracts of S. lehmbachii at concentrations of 50 mg/kg body weight orally for 3 weeks. Group 5 is diabetic rats treated with leaf extracts of A. heterophyllus at concentrations of 50 mg/kg body weight orally for 3 weeks and Group 6 is diabetic rats treated with Glibenclamide. The results revealed that on day 21, the difference between the rats treated with the leaf extracts were highly significant (P < 0.05) in relation to reversal of hyperglycemia when compared with the positive control group, although the reduction level of T. conophorum was better when compared with S. lehmbachii, A. heterophyllus and Glibenclamide (T.c < S.l < Gl < A.h = 88.1 Mg/dl < 91.1 Mg/dl < 91.3 Mg/dl < 123.2 Mg/dl). This may have occurred due to the regeneration of the damaged β-Pancreatic Islets cells by the plant extracts which contain phytochemicals that constitutes a protective factor against cardiovascular diseases by helping to increase the viability of the beta cells and reduction of muscle wasting and loss of tissue proteins in these rats exposed to alloxan or other oxidative stress. It is therefore highly encouraged to carry out more pharmacological and clinical studies on these plants which will help in production of a novel herbal drugs which will be affordable and readily available for the management of this ailment.