Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Strophanthus hispidus Dc. (Apocynaceae) Roots Extract on Normal and Hyperglycemic Rats

Akinlami O. Omokehinde, Adegoke O. Temidayo, Ibukunoluwa M. Rebecca, Famobuwa E. Olaniyi, A. Oyebade

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/40393

Objective: To investigate the hypoglycemic activity of both ethanol extract Strophanthus hispidus root (EESHR) and chloroform extract Strophanthus hispidus root (CESHR) respectively.

Methods: Both ethanol extract Strophanthus. hispidus root and chloroform extract Strophanthus. hispidus root  were evaluated respectively for hypoglycemic activity using Fasting blood glucose (FBG) method.  Chloroform extract Strophanthus hispidus root was further fractionated using standard column chromatography techniques and the fractions were evaluated for hypoglycemic using standard oral glucose tolerance test method.

Results: In the experiments, the hypoglycemic activity of the chloroform extracts Strophanthus hispidus root was better than that of ethanol extract Strophanthus hispidus root  at 500 mg/kg respectively for both extracts which were significant (p=0.05) and compared to gibenclamide.

Conclusion: The results showed that chloroform extract Strophanthus hispidus root fraction (3-4) at 200 mg/kg possesses significant hypoglycemic activity better than that of the standard drug-glibenclamide. This supports its use as a potent anti-diabetic drug in alternative herbal medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Vigna subterranea seed Extract as Possible Adjuvant for Typhoid Fever Vaccine

Ifeoma Agatha Onah, Chinedu Ofojebe, Damian Chukwu Odimegwu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/41329

Typhoid fever is an essential communicable disease that is endemic in developing countries characterised by poor water supply, sanitary conditions and increasing population. Vaccination with the Salmonella typhi (ST) vaccine is an effective control measure. The two currently licensed ST vaccines are saddled with a lot of drawbacks which can be overcomed by the addition of adjuvant. Vigna substerranea (VS) ethanolic extract was evaluated as a possible adjuvant to ST vaccine. Mice were vaccinated with typhoid vaccine followed by daily weight measurement, and enumeration of microbial colony counts post-vaccination ST challenge. The blood culture results showed that mice group that received our formulated vaccine had the lowest microbial load (82.2±29.72) colony forming units (CFU) following microbial challenge, the mice body weight assessment results also emphasize this as the mice in this treatment group had an uninterrupted healthy growth. Further, from our results VS extract demonstrated a relative inability to function as effective adjuvant to the ST vaccine since the microbial load in this group (vaccine + VS extract) was high (152.3±47.67) hence the ineffectiveness of combining both agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude, Perception and Behaviour of Patients towards Drug Leaflet in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

O. A. Alkhamees, N. A. Qureshi, M. A. Al Fadhel, S. M. Alsanad

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/41493

Background: Patient-tested and -friendly information leaflets provide sufficient, accurate, and pertinent information about prescribed and over-the-counter medications to health consumers for their safety, enhanced satisfaction, improved outcomes and no medication errors across the globe. However healthcare consumers’ knowledge, attitude, behaviour and perception concerning different items of drug leaflets differ across the board.

Objective: This study aimed to explore knowledge, attitude, behaviour and perception of patients towards drug/patient information leaflets in Riyadh, capital city of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used a self-designed reliable questionnaire for collecting relevant data about drug leaflets from purposefully selected participants (n=319) attending ambulatory clinics of a main hospital of King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh.

Results:  The majority of patients were females (75%), 61% patients were between the ages of 20 to 30 years, and 58% of the participants were educated to university level.  About 61% to 97% of participants agreed to knowledge, attitude and behaviour items, and only 26% patients perceived that the drug information provided by healthcare professionals suffices on its own without the drug leaflets. About 62 % of the participants observed that the information in the drug leaflet is more useful than the information given verbally by healthcare professionals. The majority of patients (66% to 99%) expressed variably positive behaviour and favourable attitudes toward drug leaflet information. The participants ranked ‘indications’ (31.4%) and ‘how to use’ (26.7%) drugs as the two most important sections in drug leaflet. 

Conclusion: Drug leaflets are important sources of drug information for patients globally and improve their knowledge as well as positive effects on their attitude, perception and behaviour. Healthcare professionals need to encourage health consumers to read the drug leaflets which need to be patient-friendly and be written clearly in understandable lay terminology and native language. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Induced Abortion amongst Women Attending Antenatal Care Services in a Tertiary Health Institution in Nigeria

A. O. Addah, E. M. Ikeanyi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/40680

Introduction/ Background: Induced abortion is a major cause of maternal death and ill-health in developing countries, especially in those with restrictive abortion laws as in Nigeria. Antenatal subjects will form a window through which this aged-long procedure can be reappraised on what was responsible for the survival of those who had an abortion in the past.

Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of induced abortions amongst antenatal attendants.

Methodology: This study was carried out at The Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Nigeria, between April 1st and August 31st, 2016. It was a cross-sectional, retrospective observational study of 352 subjects attending antenatal care at the centre. It was reportage of the respondent’s history of terminations of pregnancies in the past using closed-ended pretested questionnaire.

Results: The induced abortion rate for the study was 53.7% of deliveries. The Odds Ratio (OR) between unmarried and married women for pregnancy termination was: (OR = 5.65 at 95% CI 3.96 to 8.06, p < 0.0001). The odds against having an abortion and live births in the study were:  (OR 0.59 at 95% CI 0.45 to 0.78, p<0.0001).  The mean gestational age at termination of pregnancies was 7.3 weeks and the age at first pregnancy termination was 21.06 ± 3.27 years. Pregnancies (n=189) were terminated because subjects were not married (39.75%) and to further their education (37.0%). Doctors terminated 148 (78.3%) pregnancies, 141 (74.6%) pregnancies were terminated in private clinic settings, 169 (89.4%) said the termination environment was clean, 124 (65.6) experienced febrile morbidity after pregnancy termination. The odds ratio for long term modern contraceptive use by subjects who had a termination of pregnancy (n=189), (OR= 4.68, 95% CI 3.27 to 6.69, P< 0.0001).

Conclusion: With the degree of febrile morbidity amongst subjects after the procedure, much need to be done to meet WHO standards for safe abortion in countries with restrictive abortion laws.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological Study of the Effect of Cold and Hot Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Vascular Activity of Diabetic Albino Rats

Hassan Helaly Abu Rahma, Haredy Hassan Haredy, Hoda khalifa Abd-Elhady, Ali Foli Abdelsalam

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/37953

The oxidative stress has been indicated to play an important role in the development and progression of diabetic complications such as decreased vascular reactivity, hypertension….etc.  Previous studies show that Hibiscus sabdariffa possesses a hypoglycemic effect and useful in some diseases including hypertension. Our study aimed to evaluate the possible protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract on diabetic vascular complications and blood pressure and compare between cold and hot aqueous extracts by studying their effects on the reactivity of the isolated rat aorta to norepinephrine and acetylcholine in the diabetic albino rats. The results show that the rats systolic blood pressure and, the contractile response of the isolated rat aortae to norepinephrine are increased significantly and the relaxant response of the rat aortae to acetylcholine is decreased significantly as compared with those obtained from the nondiabetic rats.  Treatment with both cold and hot hibiscus as well as glibenclamide decreased significantly the systolic blood pressure and the contractile response of the isolated aortae to norepinephrine as well as increased significantly the relaxant response of the isolated aortae to acetylcholine. In conclusion, Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts, either cold or hot can protect against the diabetes mellitus- induced vascular complications by decreasing the elevated blood pressure and the increased norepinephrine- induced contractile effect as well as by improving the decreased relaxant responses to acetylcholine in the Streptozotocin- induced diabetic male albino rats.