Open Access Original Research Article

Availability, Accessibility and Affordability of Antimalarial Drugs in Benue State, North Central Nigeria

Paul Otor Onah

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/32292

Title: Availability, accessibility and affordability of antimalarial drugs in North Central Nigeria

Objectives: To assess the availability and affordability of antimalarial drugs in healthcare facilities as well as compare prices and affordability within and between sectors.

Background: Malaria is endemic in all parts of Nigeria and transmission occurs throughout the year. In north central Nigeria transmission is intense during the rainy season between April and October. Prevalence of malaria remains high; the prevention and treatment of clinical cases has been the focus of several ongoing interventions. The availability and affordability of recommended Artemisinin combination therapies (ACT) are both critical to the success of malaria control efforts.

Methods: This was a cross sectional healthcare facility study design in Benue State North Central Nigeria using WHO/HAI methodology. The study was carried out in three urban and three rural areas of the State between the rainy months of April and July.

Results: Artemisinin monotherapies and non artemisinin monotherapies accounted for the greater percentage of antimalarial medications recorded during the survey. Over 70% of both monotherapies and ACTs were found in private healthcare facilities. In-spite of the high availability of monotherapies, majority of patients purchased low priced generic versions of ACTs indicating increasing awareness and improvement in the implementation of antimalarial treatment policy at healthcare facility level.  Innovator brands of antimalarial drugs were more than 200% more expensive compared to their low priced generic versions making them less affordable.

Conclusion: Monotherapies remain highly available in private healthcare facilities compared to ACTs; this poses serious challenge to the success of antimalarial treatment policy. Innovator brands of antimalarial drugs which are still widely available are less affordable than their low priced generic version. This has the potential to reduce financial access in areas where options are limited.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antibacterial Activities of Methanolic Extract of Antidesma bunius (Linn.) (Family Euphorbiaceae) Leaf

Sonia Zaman, Md. Shariful Islam, Sabiha Ferdowsy Koly, Tahmid Faisal, Kamruzzaman Rakib

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/40004

Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of leaf of Antidesma bunius (Family Euphorbiaceae).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in August 2017 in the Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity activity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii by using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Vincristine Sulphate was used as a positive control. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disk diffusion technique. Kanamycin was used as standard.

Results: Crude methanolic extract and its different fractions demonstrated variable cytotoxic activity. Especially, ethyl acetate soluble fraction displayed considerable toxicity toward brine shrimps. The LC50 value of ethyl acetate soluble fraction was 0.589μg/ml, dichloromethane soluble fraction was 0.737μg/ml, n-hexane soluble fraction was 0.894μg/ml and crude methanolic extract was 0.913μg/ml. The LC50 value of standard vincristine sulphate was 0.545μg/ml. The n-hexane soluble fraction exhibited the highest inhibition against microbial growth especially against E.coli DH5 by having a zone of inhibition of 19mm.

Conclusion: Observing the studies, it can be concluded that ethyl acetate soluble fraction of A. bunius leaves possess good cytotoxic activity and n-hexane soluble fraction possess good antibacterial activity. Hence, further studies are suggested to identify the exact bioactive compounds that could be accounted for its pharmacological effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Cynodon dactylon Extracts against Escherichia coli

Shakira Nakitende, Ibrahim Ntulume, Julius Tibyangye

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/39990

Aims: To determine the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial potential of Cynodon dactylon leaf extracts against Escherichia coli.

Study Design: Experimental short-term prospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Kampala International University-Western Campus Teaching Hospital (KIU-WCTH), Microbiology Laboratory in Bushenyi District, Western Uganda, between June to December 2017.

Methodology: The presence of phytochemical constituents was determined using standard method whereas the antibacterial activity of C. dactylon extracts against susceptible E. coli ATCC 25922 and resistant E. coli BAA-2469 was determined by agar well diffusion method.

Results: The C. dactylon extract was found to contain flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids and glycosides except for the absence of Alkaloids in both extracts. The C. dactylon ethanol and aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity against susceptible E. coli ATCC 25922 and resistant E. coli BAA-2469. Ethanol extract of C. dactylon had a mean zone of inhibition of 24.3±0.6 mm and 20.3±0.6 mm against the susceptible and resistant strains of E. coli respectively and aqueous extract exhibited a mean zone of inhibition of 19.3±0.6 mm and 16.3±0.6 against the susceptible and resistant strains of E. coli respectively as compared to the standard positive control (ciprofloxacin) which showed a mean zone of inhibition of 47.5±0.9 mm and 43.2±0.3 mm against the susceptible and resistant strains of E. coli respectively.

Conclusion: The C. dactylon extract was found to contain flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids and glycosides except for the absence of Alkaloids in both extracts. The C. dactylon ethanol and aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity against the susceptible E. coli ATCC 25922 and resistant E. coli BAA-2469.

Open Access Original Research Article

Renal and Metabolic Effects of Goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) Extract Compared with Potassium Chloride in Rats Receiving Hydrochlorothiazide

O. V. Tovchiga, S. Yu. Shtrygol

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/40313

Aims: To determine the influence of Aegopodium podagraria L. aerial part extract on the function of the kidney and the metabolic processes in rats receiving hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 80 mg/kg).

Study Design:  The  rats  were  randomly  distributed  to five groups: Group  I:  intact  control; Group  II:  HCTZ; Group  III:  HCTZ +  A. podagraria extract, 100 mg/kg; Group  IV:  HCTZ + A. podagraria extract, 1 g/kg; Group V: HCTZ + potassium chloride, 60 mg/kg (potassium equivalent).

Place and Duration of Study: Central Scientific-Research Laboratory of National  University of  Pharmacy, Kharkiv, Ukraine, October 2016 – November 2016.

Methodology: At days 21-22,  the renal excretory function was analysed, creatinine, uric acid, urea, protein, sodium and potassium level in urine and plasma were determined,  glomerular filtration rate, sodium and water reabsorption, sodium proximal and distal transport were calculated. The signs of general toxicity were estimated (relative weights of kidney and liver, plasma marker enzymes).

Results: No signs of HCTZ general toxicity were seen (and the extract did not induce them when combined with HCTZ), while plasma potassium content was reduced, and the tolerance to some of the renal effects developed. Potassium excretion was maximal in the group receiving GW extract at a higher dose in all experiments, while both doses of the extract, as well as potassium chloride, approximated kalemia to the intact control value. The extract (1 g/kg) and potassium chloride supported natriuresis in water-loading test (due to the decrease in distal sodium transport, P = .05) and did not influence on it under the conditions of spontaneous diuresis. The additional favourable properties of the extract are its ability to increase uric acid excretion (at higher dose, P = .05) and to decrease plasma urea level (at both doses, P = .05).

Conclusion: The results substantiate the principial possibility of goutweed extract combined use with HCTZ.

Open Access Original Research Article

C-reactive Protein, Trace Element and Lipid Profile in Cardiovascular Disease

Olooto E. Wasiu, Amballi A. Adetola, A. Aiyedun, Onayemi A. Adedeji, Olawale O. Oladipupo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/40194

Background: The increase in consumption of industrial processed food, economic instability consequent to global economic recession; job losses; increase incidence of diabetes and chronic kidney disease; increase steroids use; dyslipidemia; and obesity has been implicated in the global increase in hypertension and corresponding heart diseases. This study evaluates the pattern of C-reactive protein, trace element and lipid profile in cardiovascular disease between January 2016 and August 2017.

Method: The study was a cross-sectional. A total of one hundred participants (consisting of 50 patients and 50 control subjects mean age 56.12±11.4 and 59.8±10.8 yrs respectively) attending medical outpatient clinic of Ogun state general hospital Abeokuta on account of hypertensive heart diseases and other cardiovascular related illness were recruited for the study. Relations that accompanied the patients to the clinic and some workers of the hospital were recruited as controls. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain some demographic data from all the participants. Blood pressure was measured using mercurial sphygmomanometer. Venous blood was collected from all the participants, allowed to clot and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min to obtain the serum. Serum C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, Zinc, Magnesium and Selenium were measured.

Results: Result showed no significant differences in age and height (p > 0.05); a statistically significant increase in weight, BMI, SBP, DBP, serum total cholesterol, LDLC, VLDLC, triglyceride, AI, CRI and CRP (p < 0.05); and a statistically significant decrease in serum HDLC, trace element (Zn, Mg, and Se) (p < 0.05) among the hypertensive patients when compared with the control subjects.

Conclusion: Base on the result obtained from this study, CVD is associated with abnormalities in inflammatory markers, lipid profile, and antioxidant micronutrients.