Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Compliance with Safety Protective Measures and Devices among Commercial Motorcyclists in Sokoto Metropolis, Northwestern Nigeria

Nasiru Lawal, M. O. Oche, B. A. Isah, A. Yakubu, M. O. Raji

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/39205

Background: Motorcycle accidents occur frequently in this part of the world as a result of interface among the agent, the host and its environment resulting in fatal consequences. The objective of this study was to assess the Knowledge of, attitude and compliance with road safety protective devices among commercial motorcyclists in Sokoto metropolis, Sokoto.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 307 commercial motorcyclists randomly selected from 40,000 commercial motorcyclists in Sokoto metropolis who are registered with Amalgamated Commercial Motorcycle Riders Association of Nigeria using a multistage sampling technique. A pre-tested 99 item, structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used as the tool for data collection. The Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.

Results: Majority of respondents (67%) had poor overall knowledge of road safety measures, while 60.9% could not identify earplugs. Equally, 77.9% could not correctly identify zebra crossing, and 87.9% were unable to correctly identify the overtake do not overtake road sign. On the other hand,  less than one  third (30.6%) of respondents had positive attitude towards use of road safety protective devices; with 47.2% of respondents perceiving the use of safety devices as unimportant  and 19.5%  do not regard   adherence  to safety protective devices as measure that  can   prevent injuries from RTA. Majority (99.7%) of the respondents had inappropriate safety measure practice, as most of the respondents reported they had never worn a reflective jacket. In terms speed, 93% of the respondents confessed that they usually ride fast to beat traffic light while 79% confirmed that they observe regulated speed limit, as 32% revealed that they rarely use traficator before turning to a junction.

Conclusion: Most of the respondents had poor overall knowledge of road safety measures, less than one third had positive attitude towards use of road safety measures while majority had inappropriate safety measure practice.

Recommendation: Ensuring formal training, vigorous enlightenment campaigns and enforcement on the use of safety protective devices by the relevant key authorities will greatly help improve the Knowledge, attitude and practices of commercial motorcyclist.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reversibility Capacity of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaf on Cyclophosphamide Induced Immunotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

S. O. Ojeka, D. V. Dapper, A. A. Okerengwo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/38319

Introduction: Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapeutic alkylating drug currently used in combination with other protective agents for the purpose of reducing the adverse toxic effects. Increasingly, plants have become sources of therapeutics that can help to restore host immunity to normal.

Aim: In this study, reversibility capacity of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaf on cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in male wistar rats was investigated.

Methods: Twenty five (25) wistar rats weighing 120 – 200g were used, which were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each. Group I served as normal control and received water and normal feed. Group II served as standard control and received 30mg/kg cyclophosphamide (a potent immunosuppressant) only. Groups III-V served as test groups and were administered with 125mg/kg bw extract +30mg/kg bw CPM, 250mg/kg bw extract +30mg/kg bw CPM and 500mg/kg bw extract +30mg/kg bw CPM respectively po once daily for 28 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture and transferred into ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid bottles for analyses of hematological parameters such as: Total white blood cell counts and Differential and Platelets count.

Results: The result showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in the level of the various immunological parameters assayed. This depicts a possible immunosuppressive potential of Moringa oleifera leave extract. However, a dose dependant significant (p<0.05) decrease in Total WBC count, Neurophil count, Lymphocyte count, Monocyte count, Total lymphocyte count (TLC) and Platelets count following the co – administration of cyclophosphamide and  Moringa oleifera leave extract when compared to cyclophosphamide administered groups. However, nonsignificant decrease in eosinophil and Basophil were observed.

Conclusion: Therefore, the results strongly suggest that Moringa oleifera leaves may have potential effect as a naturally derived immunostimulant to reverse the immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide. Combined administration of Moringa oleifera leave extract and cyclophosphamide modulate cellular immunity and could be beneficial in intracellular bacterial and viral infections. Further studies using isolated compounds of the extract are recommended to identify the active agent with its exact mechanism of action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Malaria Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Urban and Rural Households in North Central Nigeria

Paul Otor Onah

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/31413


Background: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria accounting for a significant proportion of household expenditure in treatment and prophylaxis. Nigeria account for 25% of global clinical cases and mortality and also has the highest malaria burden in sub Saharan Africa. In most cases of malaria illness, treatment takes place at the community level and only few serious cases are taken to healthcare facilities. A number of cultural, socioeconomic, patient related and health service provider variables often in a complex interplay are known to influence treatment seeking behaviour, though the relative importance of variables differ widely between settings.

Objectives: To identify where households receive malaria treatment services as well as prevalence of malaria related hospitalization. Also to identify the most common factor(s) that most influence malaria treatment behaviour.

Methods: This is a cross section study using multistage sampling method for household survey. This study was carried out during the rainy months of June and July 2016. Six towns with high urban and rural population density in Benue State were purposely selected for survey. A total of 1705 completed household administered questionnaires were found usable for analysis. The data was entered into SPSS version 20 for descriptive and inferential analysis. Factor analysis using principal component analysis, varimax rotation with KMO normalization was carried out. Factor loadings lower than 0.4 was suppressed. Mean item scores with high factor loading and mean total extracted component score were used for further analysis. P values ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.

Ethical Issues: Ethical approval was sought and obtained from health research ethic department of Benue State Ministry of health and human services (

Results and Discussion: The average malaria prevalence in rural areas was twice that of urban areas, though the rates of hospitalization were similar. About 50% of households in both rural and urban areas reported at least one episode of malaria within the study period reflecting persistence of high malaria transmission. Many variables have been shown to influence treatment behaviour.

Conclusion: Malaria cases and malaria related hospitalization remain high and while public health facilities play more dominant roles, while in rural areas private providers dominates the landscape. Treatment seeking behaviour is largely influenced by many variables relating to availability, accessibility, affordability and perceptions of household healthcare decision makers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in White Blood Cells Differential Associated with Adult Malaria-Infected Patients

J. C. Ozougwu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/38784

Aims: Malaria parasites are expected to impact the white blood cell differential of malaria patients, but reports on changes in white blood cell differentials of malaria patients are not well documented, hence this study was undertaken to determine changes in white blood cell differentials associated with male and female malaria patients.

Study Design: Twenty male and twenty female malaria patients were divided into four groups made up of ten malaria positive males (MPM), ten malaria negative males (MNM), ten malaria positive females (MPF) and ten malaria negative females (MNF).

Methodology: The hematological parameters were evaluated using automated full blood count Sysmex machine.

Results: The result of changes in white blood cell differential associated with male and female malaria patients showed an increase in lymphocyte percentage (LYM%), mixed cell count percentage (MXD%), neutrophil percentage (NEU%), lymphocyte absolute value (LYM#), mixed cell count absolute value (MXD#) and neutrophil absolute value (NEU#) of both malaria positive males and females compared to malaria negative males and females which were statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study has shown that malaria parasite increased all white blood cell differential parameters significantly in male and female patients examined. White blood cell differential in adult malaria-infected patients are associated with an increase in white blood cell differential parameters irrespective of gender. Further studies should be carried out to determine the clinical relevance of this finding especially as it could assist in the diagnosis of malaria infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring of Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) Inhibitors and Diuretics Applied in General Hospital-Ikot Ekpene and St. Luke’s Hospital-Uyo of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Eshiet, Unyime Israel, Jackson, Idongesit Linus

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/39209

Introduction: Blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been shown to be beneficial in patients with hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure and diabetic renal disease. However, RAAS inhibitors and diuretic therapy are associated with some side effects, notably electrolytes imbalance and renal impairment.

Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of monitoring of renal function and electrolyte levels in cardiovascular disease patients managed with RAAS inhibitors and diuretics.

Methods: The study was carried out in two selected secondary health facilities (General Hospital-Ikot Ekpene and St Luke’s Hospital-Uyo) in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria between May and September 2016. The case notes of 600 (300 from each facility) cardiovascular disease patients managed with RAAS inhibitors and diuretics were retrieved from the hospital medical record of the study centers and reviewed. Relevant information was collected. Data obtained were analyzed using statistical program for social science (SPSS) version 17 with descriptive statistics.

Results: Of the 600 case notes studied, only 2.8% of the cases had a baseline monitoring of renal function and electrolyte concentrations. Only 2.2% of the cases had a follow-up monitoring (without baseline monitoring) of renal function and electrolyte concentrations. None of the cases studied had both baselines and followed up monitoring of renal function and electrolyte levels.

Conclusion: Non-adherence to guidelines on renal function and electrolytes monitoring was observed amongst the cases studied. The prescribers should be educated on the risks associated with lack of proper monitoring of renal function and electrolyte levels in cardiovascular disease patients managed with RAAS inhibitors and diuretics.