Open Access Original Research Article

The Disintegrant Property of a Hydrophilic Cellulose Polymer Derived from the Tubers of Ipomoea batatas in Paracetamol Tablet Formulation

Ugoeze Kenneth C., Nwachukwu Nkemakolam

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/37119

Aims: A new hydrophilic cellulose polymer (I-hydrocel) derived from the tubers of Ipomoea batatas was assessed as a tablet disintegrant in paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with maize starch.

Methods: I-hydrocel was incorporated intragranularly at 5, 10 and 15% w/w to prepare granules containing paracetamol (80.65% w/w), gelatin (3.50% w/w) and lactose as a filler by wet granulation alongside those containing maize starch. The micromeritic evaluations of the granules were carried and later, they were lubricated with 0.5% w/w magnesium stearate and compressed at 4.50 kg into tablets using a single punch tablet press fitted with a 12.50 mm punch. The uniformity of weight/content and disintegration time tests for tablets were accomplished using the British Pharmacopoeia, BP methods. Tablet hardness, friability and tensile strength were also evaluated. A 30 min dissolution rate studies were conducted using the rotating paddle at 50 rpm (United States Pharmacopoeia, USP) in 900 ml of phosphate buffer (pH 5.8) at 37 ± 0.5°C. The absorbance of the respective samples were determined in an ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer at 245 nm. 

Results: The granules were flowable and the tablets compressed from them complied with BP acceptable limit for uniformity of weight, drug content and disintegration time (≤ 15 min). However, tablets containing 5% w/w corn starch disintegrated significantly more quickly (P= 0.000) than those containing 5% w/w I-Hydrocel but at 10 and 15% w/w of I-hydrocel and maize starch, there was no significant difference (P= 0.296 and 0.543 respectively) in disintegration times of tablets. The tablets prepared with maize starch generally had higher values of hardness, tensile strength and hardness-friability-ratio (HFR) than those containing I-hydrocel (P = 0.000) while the friability obtained for the tablets from either disintegrant were less than 1%. In dissolution rate studies, all the batches of tablets containing either maize starch or I-hydrocel released their drug content above 80% and maximally within 15 min.

Conclusion: At 5% w/w, paracetamol tablets prepared with maize starch disintegrated earlier than those of I-hydrocel while at 10 and 15% w/w, there was no significant difference in disintegration time for both samples. Therefore, at 10 or 15% w/w, either maize starch or I-hydrocel could be used to achieve a similar disintegration outcome. However, the disintegration time obtained at 5, 10 and 15 % w/w of either disintegrant complied with BP specifications of ≤ 15 min for uncoated tablets.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Correlation of Promoter Polymorphism and Expression of Androgen Receptor Gene with Hypospadia Incidence

Yevri Zulfiqar, Yanwirasti ., Jamsari ., Irfan Wahyudi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34294

Introduction: Hypospadia is one of the most common congenital abnormalities, yet the exact cause remains unknown. Androgen Receptor (AR) is suspected to cause hypospadias.

Methods: As many as 49 post-operative prepuces of hypospadia patients and 49 normal prepuces from elective circumcision were recruited. Materials of this study were prepuces of hypospadia patients and normal children’s prepuces. The prepuces were collected from residual tissue of the patients who underwent operation. The operation was a standard procedure done by urologist in the hospital.

Utilization of residual prepuces as study material could be an ethical issue. Therefore, explanation to patient’s parents about purpose, advantage, and disadvantage of the study was necessary. All cost needed to examine AR gene polymorphism and expression was borne by authors. Confidentiality of the study was guaranteed.

Results: The result of this study showed no AR polymorphisms in experimental and control group. AR gene over-expression was found in experimental group, and it was statistically significant (p = 0.001). From this study, we found that AR gene over-expression was correlated with hypospadia incidence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hygroscopic Expansion Influence on Cuspal Deflection of Tooth Composite Restoration

Hossam M. Mossa, Essam I. Elkhatat, Labib M. Labib

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/38834

Introduction: Polymerization shrinkage can result in gap formation between the composite material and tooth structure with subsequent plaque accumulation, which affect the esthetic quality of a restoration and initiate periodontal diseases.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hygroscopic expansion on the cusp deflection of tooth composite restoration.

Study Design: Invitro study using human premolars.

Place and Duration of Study: Preventive and operative dental sciences in Alfarabi Dental Sciences, Riydah, KSA between July and September 2017.

Materials and Methods: Eighty (80) human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. In each of the extracted premolar mesio- occluso distal cavity (MOD) was prepared and divided into two main groups (40 each) according to the restorative material, each main group randomly divided into two groups according to bonding used (20 each), subdivided into four equal subgroups (5 teeth per each) according to immersion in normal saline, Specimens were stored in saline for four-time interval (immediate, 2, 4 &12) weeks. Cuspal deflection was detected by digital caliper.

Results: There was a significant difference between the last two groups which filled with composite resin while the control teeth showed no significant difference. The cavities which restored with silorane (P90) resin-based composites and bonded with its consensual adhesive recorded the least Cuspal deformations.

Conclusions: Cuspal deformation was decreased by hygroscopic expansion in teeth restored with a hydrophobic resin composite, while a hydrophilic composite restoration shows over-compensated the polymerization shrinkage causing tooth expansion.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antimycobacterial Screening of Ficus sycomorus Extracts on Susceptible Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

M. A. Song, M. M. Abarshi, D. A. Ameh, M. S. Aliyu, K. Mamuda, E. Nicolas, A. Isiyaku, P. Meshak, I. Mosunmola, K. Abba, S. Mikailu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/38201

Aims: To evaluate the Anti-mycobacterial activity of Ficus sycomorus extracts by in vitro screening against susceptible strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to standard TB drugs.

Study Design: Hospital/University based cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: National Tuberculosis and Leprosy training center Zaria, Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello university Zaria. March 2015 to February 2017.

Methodology: The anti-mycobacterial activity of Ficus sycomorus (stem bark, root bark, leaves and fruits) was studied in vitro using standard Nitrate Reductase Assay techniques against susceptible strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis of the n-hexane fruit extract was done using standard test methods. Partial fractionation of the n-hexane fruit extract was done using Thin layer and column chromatography assay.

Results: n-hexane fruit extract showed activity against the tested Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M-Tb) strain. This activity was observed between 100-400 µg/mL against the susceptible strain to standard TB drugs. The crude n-hexane, leaves, root bark and stem bark extracts lacked activity against the susceptible M-Tb strain. The methanol and aqueous extracts of fruit, leaves, stem bark and root bark also lacked activity against the tested susceptible M-Tb strain. The n-hexane fruit extract (the most active extract) was then partially purified using thin layer chromatography and Column chromatography where four fractions A-D was obtained, where A lacked activity but B, C and D was measured for their Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as 6.25 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL respectively, therefore fraction B had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against the tested M-Tb strain as 6.25 µg/mL. The crude n-hexane fruit extract also revealed phytochemicals of which saponins and alkaloid had the highest percentage content, (16.67±0.04%) and (6.00±0.02%) respectively

Conclusion: Therefore, these findings indicate that if Ficus sycomorus is properly explored and standardized it could be used as herbal drug against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Free Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Crateva adansonii (Three-leaf Plant)

H. C. C. Maduka, C. E. Ugwu, C. C. Dike, A. N. Okpogba, P. N. Ogueche, M. S. Ali, S. S. Bakare, J. Tino

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/38321

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Crateva adansonii popularly known as Three-Leaf plant is used in some South Eastern part of Nigeria by traditional medicine practitioners to treat certain diseases such as infertility and infection.

Aim: This research work aimed at investigating the in vitro antioxidant activities of various parts of Crateva adansonii (Three-leaf plant) an Eastern Nigerian medicinal additive using various method of extraction (hot and cold extracts prepared from the root, leaf and stem bark of the plant). This is to know the best method that would give highest antioxidant properties.

Study Design: This work was designed to compare the antioxidant activities of various parts of Crateva adansonii under Ferric thiocyanate (FCT) assay. These include; Hot root extract, cold root extract, hot leaf extract, cold leaf extract, hot stem-bark extract and cold-stem bark extract at various durations. The study was also designed to study the in vitro antioxidative activities, including thiobabituric acid (TBA) assay, diphenyl-β-picryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects and reducing power as standard evaluation methods.

Place of Study and Duration of Study: This study took place at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno, State Nigeria and the duration of study  was eight weeks

Methodology: Parameters were analyzed spectrophotometrically using UV- VIS spectrophotometer (model 725G, China) at room temperature. Hot and cold water were used for the extraction.

Results: It  was  observed  that  the  antioxidant  activities  using  FTC  assay increased  as  the  peroxide concentration decreased with time in all the extracts. The results showed that the hot extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation more than the cold extracts. The hot root extract showed the highest reducing power (p<0.05) among all the other extracts. Hot root extract showed stronger antioxidant activities under FTC assay than cold root extract. Hot leaf extract did not show stronger antioxidant activities than cold leaf extract while hot stem bark extract did not show stronger antioxidant activities than cold stem bark extract. The results were analyzed by one way ANOVA using SPSS statistical soft ware version 16.

Conclusion: The extracts showed a positive DPPH test with the HLE, CRE, and CLE showing strong antioxidant actions respectively. The results demonstrated that the extracts from C. adansonii scavenged free radical, and reduced lipid peroxidation and could serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants. Hot water is therefore better than cold water when doing root extraction of this plant.