Open Access Short Research Article

Berberine Prevents Bone and Cartilage Destruction and Influences Cell Senescence in Experimental Arthritis

Petya Ganova, Lyudmila Belenska-Todorova, Tsvetelina Doncheva, Nina Ivanovska

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/37839

Background: Berberine (BB) is a protoberberine alkaloid with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities considered to be a selective Janus kinase (Jak)3 inhibitor. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of berberine’s actions on joint inflammation have not been well clarified.

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of berberine on cartilage and bone destruction, and on generation of senescent cells.

Methodology: The experiments were conducted in a murine model of erosive arthritis induced by intra-articular (i.a.) injection of zymosan (zymosan-induced arthritis, ZIA). Histopathologic changes were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), toluidine blue and Sudan Black B (SBB) staining. Bone marrow (BM) cells were shifted to osteoblast differentiation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive cells were determined together with ALP activity in the cell lysates. Calvarial osteoblast generation was determined by von Cossa staining.

Results: Berberine decreased cartilage and bone erosion. The loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) was lower in BB-treated group (72.0 +/- 2.9% in ZIA mice vs 25.7 +/- 2.2 in BB group). BB inhibited the generation of senescent cells and decreased the ALP activity of these cells (0.550 +/- 0.006 for non-arthritic, 1.725.8 +/- 0.110 for ZIA and 0.750 +/- 0.0.064 for ZIA+BB).

Conclusion: Berberine showed potential anti-arthritic properties in a model of erosive RA perspective for administration in joint disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Citrus Limon Juice on Serum Bilirubin, High Density Lipoprotein and Low Density Lipoprotein in Adult Male Wistar Rats under Variable Models of Stress

Anachuna Kenneth Kelechi, Daubry Tarela Melish Elias, Ewhre Oberhiri Lawrence, Oyem John Chukwuma

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/37768

Introduction: There has been sufficient awareness on atherosclerosis but this has not reduced the number of people with it. Atherosclerosis is promoted by low density lipoprotein (LDL) without sufficient removal of fats and cholesterol by high density lipoprotein (HDL). Stress is linked with hyperlipidemia, lowering HDL and increasing LDL levels. Citrus Limon is known for its rich minerals and flavonoid content which have been employed widely.

This study is aimed at assessing the hypolipidemic effects of citrus Limon on Bilirubin, HDL and LDL levels.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of physiology, Delta State University Abraka.

Methods: Experimental animals were divided into six groups. Group I were control group rats fed with feed ad libitum, Group II were negative control rats (stressed but not treated), Group III-V were rats stressed and treated with 0.5 ml/kg, 1 ml/kg and 2 ml/kg of Citrus Limon juice respectively, Group VI treated with 0.2 ml/kg of Vitamin C. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 14 days and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Data were analyzed using SPPS and expressed as Means±Standard Error of Mean with significance at p<0.05.   

Results: Results showed that stress significantly (p<0.05) increased bilirubin and LDL and reduced HDL levels. Result also showed that Citrus limon administration significantly reduced serum bilirubin and LDL but increased HDL levels in experimental animals after 14 days.

Conclusion: This study concludes that stress raises serum bilirubin and LDL levels and reduces HDL levels thus a major risk factor towards development of atherosclerosis. Administration of Citrus limon juice however reduces serum bilirubin and LDL while increasing HDL levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Comparison of Metronidazole and Tinidazole Activity against Trichomonas vaginalis Strains in Maiduguri, Nigeria

H. S. Hamafyelto, I. E. Ikeh, O. V. Oladele

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/36205

This study investigated the in vitro comparison of metronidazole and tinidazole activity against Trichomonas vaginalis strains from internally displaced women in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Materials and Methodology: high vaginal swab samples were collected from (41) T. vaginalis positive women who consented for the study was cultured and isolated. The results were analyzed using SPSS statistics version 20.0. Results recorded (53) T. vaginalis strains for metronidazole with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range from 0.4 - 25 μg/ml and low-level resistance strains to metronidazole observed 3.8% at 25.0 μg/ml with minimum latent concentration (MLC) ≥ 50.0 μg/ml. Forty-nine (49) T. vaginalis strains were observed on the MIC range from 0.4 µg/ml to 12.5 µg/ml, indicating that all strain isolates were susceptible to tinidazole at above 12.5 μg/ml MLC. This study showed in vitro low resistance to metronidazole in a few T. vaginalis strains, while all the tested isolates were sensitive to tinidazole.

Open Access Original Research Article

Routine Histopathological Analysis of Non-suspicious Looking Foreskin for Adult Patients: Is It Necessary?

N. Kadi, L. Kayali, A. S. Bates

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/38117

Objective: To evaluate the routine histopathological analysis of foreskin in adult patients and determine whether histological processing is necessary in patients with non-suspicious foreskin. 

Materials and Methods: All adult foreskin sent for histopathological analysis between September 2014 and February 2016 at a single institution (Leighton hospital) was included in this study. Histology was compared to macroscopic appearances. A cost analysis was performed.

Results: There were 262 specimens of foreskin sent for histopathological analysis between September 2014 and February 2016. The average age for patients was 48.5 years. Most cases showed chronic inflammation, (n=110, 42%). No cancer was identified in macroscopically non- suspicious looking foreskin. Clinically diagnosed balanitis, xerotica obliterans and suspicious looking foreskin was predictive of histological abnormality.

Conclusion: Sinister pathology was not identified in non-suspicious specimens. We recommend that foreskin of patients with a high risk for penile malignancy, and macroscopically abnormal looking foreskin should always be sent for histological analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oxygen Saturation Status and Prevalence of Respiratory Symptoms among Female Bakery Workers Using Fossil Fuel in Benin-City, Nigeria

J. N. Oko-Ose

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/37903

Background: Flour dust is a respiratory sensitizer and chronic exposure to it and to Carbon Monoxide as a result of burning fossil fuel could affect the pulmonary functions and stimulate allergic responses. This study is designed to determine occupational related respiratory symptoms and oxygen saturation level of bakery worker exposed to flour dust.

Objective: Our objective is to compare the respiratory symptoms and oxygen saturation status of bakery workers with those of office workers not exposed to flour dust; compare dust concentration and carbon monoxide levels in the bakery and office environments.

Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy non-smoking adult female workers (test group) from 23 bread bakery industries participated in this study and age and sex matched with 90 healthy adult non-smoking female civil servants not exposed to such an occupational hazard were taken as controls. Pulse Oximetry was performed in all the participants who also completed questionnaire to assess demographic characteristics and prevalence of respiratory symptoms, The results were analyzed using Microsoft Excels, (2013) in percentages, mean ± standard error, student’s t-test for cross group comparison and Chi-square test to assess the association between categorical variables.

Results: The study revealed that the mean oxygen saturation status (SpO₂) of bakery workers was significantly (P < .05) lower than that of the control group.  Also, respiratory symptoms were found to be significantly more prevalent among bakery workers compared to the control group. Dust concentration and Carbon Monoxide (CO) levels were significantly higher in the baking environments compared with the control environments.

Conclusion: In conclusion, workers exposed to flour dust have sensitivity to allergens of flour protein and the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning which can lead to the increase in respiratory symptoms.