Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Spectrophotometric Determination of Total Carotenoids, Chlorophyll a and b Components of Crateva adansonii (Three-leaf Plant)

H. C. C. Maduka, A. A. Maduka, C. U. Aguoru, B. K. Myke-Mbata, J. O. Ikwue, A. N. Okpogba, C. E. Ugwu, C. C. Dike, P. N. Ogueche, D. O. Ochalefu, Nath Ufaryna, J. Yakubu, E. Shatar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/30052

Aims: To screen Crateva adansonii phytochemically for phytosterol, phenol, proteins, amino acids, and to determine the pigment levels in Crateva adansonii using various types of solvents.

Study Design: This study was designed to determne the pigment levels in the extracts of different parts of Crateva adansonii in different solvents such as ethanol, water, methanol, diethylether and also determining phytochemical constituents in leaf, leaf stalk, stem and root.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Human Biochemistry (Postgraduate Research Unit), Faculty of Basic Medical Scences, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus and Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, in January, 2014.

Methodology: Total carotenoids, chlorophyll a and b were determined spectrophotometrically using UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Model 752, China). Phytosterol was determined using Salkowski’s and Libman’s methods. Amino acids were determined using Ninhydrin methods. Results were analysed using IBM-SPSS statistical soft ware version 20, using anova

Results: Presence of amino acids were observed in leaf extract, leaf stalk, and root extracts, Amino acids were not detected in stem extract. For chlorophylls a and b pigments, methanol extract gave the highest amount of pigments significantly (P<0.05) among other extractors (acetone, ethanol and diethyl ether )

Conclusion: Aqueous stem extracts gave the highest absorption in total carotenoids while in chlorophyll a and b, diethyl ether extract of leaf gave the highest absorption. Spectrophotometric method may therefore be a suitable method that could be used in determining pigment levels in Crateva adansonii plant. The plant contains phytosterol, phenol and amino acids which are important pharmacological agents. The leaf and leaf stalk contained cupious amounts of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and b, all of which can take part in antioxidant protections and photosensitivity reactions with methanol being the best extractor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiplasmodial Potential of Combination Therapy of Methanolic Bark Extracts of Terminalia avicennioides and Anogeissus leiocarpus and Its Effect on Haematological Parameters on Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

O. M. Akanbi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/35105

Background: The resistance of Plasmodium species to drugs has necessitated the search for more potent drugs. Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides have been considered traditionally for the treatment of malaria.

Aim: This study assessed the efficacy of combination therapy of methanolic bark extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides on malaria parasite and its effect on haematological and lipid profile on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

Methodology: Thirty-six mice were distributed into six groups. The first group was not infected with the parasite (normal control). The second group was infected but not treated (negative control). The third group was infected and treated with 5.0 mg/kg of Artemether-Lumefantrine (positive control), while the third, fourth and fifth groups were infected and treated with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg body weight of combined methanolic bark extracts of T. avicennioides and A. Leiocarpus respectively. Treatments were administered for four days. Blood was taken daily from the tail of mice for the assessment of parasitaemia. The animals were sacrificed on the fifth day. Whole blood and serum were collected into EDTA and plain bottles respectively. The blood in the EDTA was used to determine haematological parameters, while lipid profile was determined using serum.

Results: The results showed that the parasite clearance was highest in the group treated with 400 mg/kg and lowest in the group treated with 100 mg/kg. White blood cell, lymphocyte, haemoglobin, red blood cell and platelets levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in normal control than in other groups. White blood cell count was lowest in the group treated with 400 mg/kg when compared with other treated groups. Haemoglobin was significantly reduced in the groups treated with 100 and 400mg/kg when compared with the group treated with 200 mg/kg. Platelet count was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the group treated with 400 mg/kg than in all other treated groups. Mean HDL and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in the group treated with 400 mg/kg than in all other treated groups.

Conclusion: Antiplasmodial potential of combination therapy of the bark extracts of A. leiocarpus and T. avicennioides was highest at 400 mg/kg but that concentration had serious adverse effect on the lipid profile, body weight and haematological parameters on mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Three Cameroonian Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections and Their Synergistic Effects with Amoxicillin and Serum

Jean-De-Dieu Tamokou, Jules-Arnaud Mboutchom Fosso, Abdel Jélil Njouendou, Steve Endeguele Ekom, Irene Chinda Kengne

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/37419

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common form of infectious diseases that affect humans after respiratory diseases. It is predicted that 20% of the adult female population is exposed to development of an UTI. The emergence of UTIs is promoted by the development of the resistance to antibiotics, highlighting the research of new antibiotics that can be used to fight effectively and at affordable cost against these infections.

Aim: The present study was designated to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three Cameroonian medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of UTIs and their synergistic effects with amoxicillin and serum.

Methods: The plant extracts were prepared by maceration in methanol. The methanol extract was partitioned into hexane, ethyl acetate and residual fractions and phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The antibacterial activities of the extracts alone and their combinations with amoxicillin and serum were evaluated using the broth microdilution method.

Results: Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, tannins and polyphenols in the methanol extracts of Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. (Convolvulaceae), Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J. Lam (Burseraceae) and Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae). The other classes of compounds (anthocyanines, triterpenes, steroids and saponines) were selectively distributed in the extracts. All the extracts exhibited antibacterial activities (MIC = 256 - 2048 μg/ml) that varied according to the bacterium and extract, confirming the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of UTIs. The fractionation of the methanol extract of D. edulis leaves did not enhance its activity and unequally distributed the antibacterial activities in different fractions. The interaction of extracts with serum resulted in a concentration-dependent-increase in the antibacterial activity of the different extracts, suggesting that the chemical constituents of the tested extracts weakly bind to the serum proteins. As a function of tested bacterial species, synergistic, additive and indifference effects between amoxicillin and the MeOH extract of D. edulis were observed.

Conclusion: The overall results of this study indicate that the extracts and fractions from the studied plants can be used to treat the UTIs caused by the tested bacteria subject to further toxicological and pre-clinical studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of a Novel Hydrophilic Biopolymer Derived from the Tubers of Ipomoea batatas on Sulphamethoxazole Suspension

Ugoeze Kenneth C., Nwachukwu Nkemakolam

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/37028

Aims: This work examines a novel hydrophilic biopolymer, I-polygel derived from Ipomoea batatas tubers (Convolvulaceae) as a suspending agent in sulphamethoxazole suspension using acacia and tragacanth respectively as comparing standards.

Methods: Aqueous suspensions of sulphamethoxazole containing 1, 2, 4 or 5% w/v of I-polygel, acacia or tragacanth respectively were prepared and evaluated using sedimentation volume, rheology, viscosity, free-thaw cycle and redispersibility tests.

Results: Sedimentation volume was proportional to the concentrations of suspending agents across the preparations with the suspensions containing I-polygel exhibiting more consistency: I-polygel > acacia > tragacanth > control (P = 0.000). The flow rates were inversely proportional to the concentrations of the respective suspending agents whereas the reverse was the case with viscosity. There was no impediment to the flow of the suspensions at the concentrations of the suspending agents employed. The suspensions containing I-polygel indicated higher viscosities in all the concentrations: I-polygel > acacia > tragacanth > control (P = 0.000). There was no significant particle size increase before and after the freeze-thaw cycle test, showing that sulphamethoxazole may be stable in the presence I-polygel, acacia and tragacanth. All the preparations containing I-polygel was redispersed with the minimal shear stress: I-polygel < acacia < tragacanth < control (P = 0.000).

Conclusion: The application of a newly developed hydrophilic polymer, I-polygel as a suspending agent in comparison to acacia and tragacanth in the formulation of sulphamethoxazole suspensions yielded a more consistent and stable suspension with statistically proven higher  sedimentation volume,  better rheological properties, higher viscosities and ease of redispersion of suspension with minimal shear stress. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Total Serum Immunoglobulin E and Eosinophilic Cationic Protein in Primary Mono-symptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis: Allergic Theory?

Hanan M. Hamed, Amany M. Abd Al-Aziz, Ayat A. Motawie, Amany A. A. Fatouh, Mona A. M. Awad

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/37732

Introduction: The available evidences indicate that nocturnal enuresis has multi-factorial etiology and this may underlie the wide range of outcomes. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been discussed and succeeded in defining many causes of enuresis such as disturbed functional bladder capacity, reversal of anti-diuretic hormone secretion rhythm and disturbed sleep architecture but still the cause could not be achieved in some enuretics. An association between allergic diseases and urinary tract disorders was reported by some authors and allergy was suggested to be one of the etiologies implicated in primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE).

Aim: is to negate or approve the allergic theory through assessment of serum level of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in a sample of Egyptian children with primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis and correlate their levels with both bladder capacity and efficiency.

Patients and Methods: Seventy-three children aged 6-18 years (32 males & 41 females) complaining of primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis on ordinary diet (no restriction to any food) were recruited. Sixty-nine healthy children of the same age and sex with good toilet control day and night were also recruited. All children were evaluated by medical history, clinical examinations and assessment of total serum IgE and eosinophil cationic protein using ELISA technique. Bladder capacity and efficiency were assessed using abdominal and pelvic ultrasonography (for 44 patients and 21 controls).

Results: Serum levels of total IgE and ECP were higher in enuretics than controls but statistically insignificant. The bladder capacity of patients was significantly smaller than controls (p=.04) while no significant difference was found regarding bladder efficiency. Total serum IgE was significantly elevated in enuretics with small bladder capacity (p=0.01) compared to enuretics with normal bladder capacity. There was a significant negative correlation between total serum IgE and both bladder capacity (p=0.041, r=-0.3) and bladder efficiency (p=0.04, r= -0.27).

Conclusion: Immunoglobulin E induced hypersensitivity may be one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in PNE through reduction of the bladder capacity and efficiency. Further proof studies on a large scale is recommended. Food elimination and challenge test could help if accused allergen is known.