Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Food Energy in Bioenergetics

Md. Abdul Hakim

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/33851

The measurement of net food energy is in great coup on the helm of designing an apt dieting. The prevailing procedures in this ground are relatively time consuming, laboratory tests induced and often the confusing data contributors while planning a balanced dieting in nutrition counseling. The dietician is often in confusion in planning a perfect dieting to hold up nutritional soundness of the sample at a population in a community. The aim of this current study is to make a dot over these enduring perils exploring a mathematical modeling to be used in an apt dieting in nutrition counseling. The study saga can directs a biophysical modeling to be used in energy balancing in bioenergetics to shirk the frequently of ongoing health horrors in worldwide nutritional epidemiology. The study verdict is the π modeling in biological mathematics in name of determinant of net food energy (DNFE) in nutritional physics on the envelop of a linear equation (16) which can be a superb mathematical modeling as a dieting tool in bioenergetics in worldwide nutritional physics and health statistics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rat Serum Electrolytes and Lipid Profiles Following Administration of Aqueous Extract of Sphenostylis stenocarpa

Okoye Ngozi Franca, Dimkpa Precious Isioma

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34369

Aim: Aqueous extract of the seed of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is used in Nigerian alternative medicine for the treatment of high blood pressure. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Sphenostylis stenocarpa seed extract on some electrolyte and lipid profiles of Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: A total of 36 wistar rats were used for this research. The rats were arranged in 4 groups and these groups had 3 subgroups containing 3 rats each. Varying doses of the aqueous extract of the Sphenostylis stenocarpa, were administered to the rats for a period of ten days and the biochemical parameters; cholesterol, triglycerides, sodium and potassium levels were determined.

Results: There was a significant decrease p≤ 0.05 in the sodium (Na+) concentration in the serum when compared to the control.  Furthermore, the potassium (K+) concentration in the serum of the experimental animals showed a significant p≤ 0.05increase. The study also showed that the aqueous extract of Sphenostylis stenocarpa had a lowering effect on the lipid profiles of the experimental rats. The highest decrease of cholesterol (2.11 ± 0.01 vs control 2.20 ± 0.12 mmol/l) was obtained on the tenth day with the highest dose of 3 ml of aqueous extract of Sphenostylis stenocarpa. Also the highest decrease in the level of triglyceride (0.40 ± 0.01 vs control 0.46 ± 0.11 mmol/l) was obtained at the tenth day with the highest dose of 3 ml of the extract. 

Conclusion: The lowering effect on the lipid profiles studied and the decrease in sodium Na+ and increase in K+ may be contributing to the reduction in high blood pressure in the individuals taking this aqueous extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Frequency of CYP3A5 Expression in a Mexican Population Compared to a Caucasian Population

Jason W. Guy, Arthur F. Harralson, Kylie Pooler, Robert S. Kidd

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/35168

Aims: To determine the frequencies of the six most common CYP3A5 alleles and genotypes in a Mexican-American population compared to a non-Hispanic Caucasian population. 

Study Design: This cross-sectional study compared the frequency of CYP3A5 genetic variations in a Mexican-American population compared to a non-Hispanic Caucasian population.

Duration of Study: The study was conducted from September 2014 to April 2015.

Methodology: There were 236 Mexican-American and 237 non-Hispanic Caucasian samples that were analyzed. The two groups of subjects’ gDNA were analyzed for CYP3A5 rs776746 (*3), rs56411402 (*4), rs10264272 (*6), rs41303343 (*7), rs55817950 (*8), and rs28383479 (*9).

Results: There was a significant difference in the CYP3A5*3 containing diplotypes, but no other diplotypes were significantly different. The frequency of the CYP3A5*3 allele in the Mexican population was 0.782, which was significantly lower than the frequency of the CYP3A5*3 allele in the non-Hispanic Caucasian population of 0.932 (P <0.001). The CYP3A5*7 frequency was very low in the Mexican-American group at 0.85% and was absent in the Caucasian group (P = 0.045).  Mexican-Americans were three times more likely to be CYP3A5 expressers compared to non-Hispanic Caucasians (P <0.001).

Conclusion: CYP3A5*3 and *7 allele frequencies vary significantly between Mexicans and non-Hispanic Caucasians, while other allele frequencies for CYP3A5*4, *6, *8 and *9 do not vary significantly between Mexicans and non-Hispanic Caucasians.  Mexican-Americans were shown to have a three-fold higher frequency of CYP3A5 expression compared to non-Hispanic Caucasians.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intramedullary Interlocking Nailing for Long Bone Fractures of the Lower Limbs: Our Experience with Free-hand Locking

Shamsuddeen Muhammad, Abdurrahman Alhaji Mamuda

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/35079

Aims: To see the pattern of interlocking nailing used for fractures of lower limb’s long bones in terms of the bone affected, laterality, age distribution, sex distribution, pattern of locking and early outcome.

Study Design: The study is a retrospective cross sectional study conducted over three years from April 2013 to march 2016 in a private hospital in Kano, North western Nigeria.

Methodology: All patients that had intramedullary nailing for femoral and/or tibial fractures within the period of study, were recruited. Theatre register was used to extract the file numbers of the patients. The folders were retrieved and the information extracted. The Data was analysed using XLStat software.

Results: The age ranges from 19 -70 years with a majority between 20-39 years. There is only one person below the age of twenty and is in the male category. There were a total of 87 procedures conducted on 81 patients of which 70(86.4%) were males and 11(13.6%) were females. Only 77% of the interlocking nail were locked at both ends, the remaining were locked at one end with the other end abandoned due to difficulty in getting the hole or actually not attempted. Of the 87 nailings, 5 were inappropriately locked outside by the side of the distal nail and 2 were locked distal to the tip of the nail. One femoral and 3 tibial, developed non-union requiring exchange nailing with a larger diameter nail and cancellous bone graft. 6 patients developed surgical site infection which were manage successfully with antibiotics and wound care with only 2 tibial nails requiring conversion to external fixation using Linear Rail system for compression. 70(86%) of the patient were satisfied with their treatment with very good – excellent range of motion, while 11(14%) patient have either of reduce range of motion, anterior knee pain or abnormal gait.

Conclusion: Most challenging aspect of the procedure were intraoperative radiography was not available, is correct placement of the distal locking screws. Use of a distal targeting device is the main stay, while using the guide wire to sound the drill bit/screw increases the chances of accurate placement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius on Some Biochemical Parameters in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

M. N. Ndukwe, G. I. Adoga, C. D. Luka

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34311

This research project was carried out to investigate the biochemical effect of Sarcocephalus latifolius leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The study was carried out for about 12 months in the department of Biochemistry University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria and Prestige medical Laboratory, Jos, Nigeria. Twenty four rats were divided into six groups of four animals each (3 male groups and 3 female groups). The male and female rats in group 1 and 2 were induced with alloxan monohydrate (as negative controls and diabetic treated animals respectively) while the third groups were used as positive controls and were given distilled water. The phytochemical constituent of Sarcocephalus latifolius leaf extract shows the presence of secondary metabolites such as Tannins, Flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. The weight of negative control groups were significantly (P<0.05) reduced when compared to other groups. Both the male and female rats treated with Sarcocephalus latifolius leaf extract, showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in blood glucose level compared to the untreated rats. Liver biomarkers (ALT, AST and ALP), significantly decreased (P<0.05) in both male and female diabetic rats after treatment with Sarcocephalus latifolius leaf extract compared to the untreated rats. Sarcocephalus latifolius leaf extract has hypolipidemic effect and thus can be used in the management of diabetes. The result above shows that the ethanolic leaf extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius can be used in the management and/or control of diabetes and other related complications.