Open Access Minireview Article

Leveraging on Prompt Proactive and Preventive Integrated Strategies (PPPIS) for Meningitis Control in Nigeria: Getting it Right

O. Ogbonna Brian

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34507

Background: Given the escalating morbidity and mortality recorded annually due to meningitis outbreak in Nigeria, it is fast becoming a disease of public health concern.

Objectives: This study described and discussed preventive strategies based on the disease pattern to generate information on the concept of prompt, proactive, and preventive integrated strategies (PPPIS).

Methods: The study was a narrative overview of relevant literatures obtained through hand search, databases, and authoritative materials.

Results: The highest suspected cases of meningitis 15733 was recorded in 1996 with 2411 (15.3%) deaths, and in 2009 when 54766 suspected cases and 2449 (4.5%) deaths were recorded. Meningitis was reported in five states of Northern Nigeria with 1407-suspected cases and 211 deaths between January 2016 and March 2017. This figure rose to 13, 420 suspected cases and 1, 069 deaths in 23 states with the five initial states inclusive. The fatality ratio was 8% in May 2017.

Conclusion: Meningitis has become an increasing contributor to disease burden with high mortality, morbidity, and economic consequences. Adoption of prompt, proactive, and preventive strategies among other integrated approaches could stem and reverse the trend.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Selected Anthropometric Indices and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Apparently Healthy Young Adults in a Nigerian Community

C. N. Ofiaeli, A. V. Egwuonwu, M. J. Nwankwo, Y. E. Ihegihu, U. P. Okonkwo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/33677

Background and Aim: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a useful tool for establishment of baseline fitness status and monitoring of physical activity level. Therefore, it may by extension serve as health risk index. However, studies that have determined the correlation between anthropometric indices and CRF in apparently healthy young adults is difficult to find in other to preempt preventive actions before pathology develops.

Materials and Methods: Using a descriptive correlational research design, 325 participants (160 males, 165 females) with mean age of 21.87±2.41 years were sampled. Tape measure, stop watch, metronome, sphygmomanometer, stethoscope, height meter, bathroom weighing scale, modified Borg’s exertion scale and step benches were used to obtain the blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, rate of perceived exertion, height, weight, waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using the mean heart rate responses of the participants. The data was summarized using frequency count, percentages, range, mean, standard deviation, Independent t-test and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation at alpha level of 0.05.

Results: CRF significantly correlated with post-test systolic blood pressure (p= 0.004), post-test diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.010) and resting heart rate (p= <0.0001) but not with BMI (p= 0.133), waist circumference (p= 0.098), pre-test systolic blood pressure (p= 0.155), pre-test diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.121), resting respiratory rate (p= 0.631), and respiratory rate recovery (p= 0.478).

Conclusion: CRF can be used as an index to quantify in apparently healthy participants, level of cardiovascular and respiratory related disease risks. It is necessary to emphasize the importance of physical activity in order to improve one’s cardiorespiratory fitness and minimize the risk of cardiorespiratory associated diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo-Study of Antiviral Effect of Gossypium hirsutum Extract on Newcastle Disease Virus

G. Ezeifeka, P. Nwiyi, U. Effiong, I. Ukwueni, I. Erumaka, A. Onyeabor, I. O. Oguoma, N. Amaechi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34530

Gossypium hirsutum belongs to the family Malvaceae and genus Gossypium, the name of the genus is derived from the Arabic word goz, which refers to a soft substance. This plant occupies a very important position in traditional medicine because of its ethnomedicinal value. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of Gossypium hirsutum extract on Newcastle disease virus. The experimental design involved the use of 59 birds (broiler). The phase involved pre-infection, infection and post-infection. Clinical signs of dyspnea, gasping, greenish diarrhea and paralysis were observed. There was mortality from day 4 in both treated and untreated groups. Gross pathological lesion of both treated and untreated groups were similar and this includes catarrhal haemorrhagic lesion, muscular haemorrhages and congestion of the kidneys, duodenum and small intestine. Also, there was congestion of lungs, liver and necrotic granules in the gland. At histology in the treated group the proventriculus, duodenum, and trachea were normal. Rectal temperature of infected and un-infected birds ranged from 41.75 0.12°C to 42.35 0.44°C, while that of treated birds did not vary significantly with treatment regimen (p>0.05) and ranged from 40.5 0.5°C on day one post infection to 42.40 0.07°C on day 3. It was observed that both treated and untreated group was eventually overwhelmed by the NDV despite the relatively low effect of the extract. There was no significant antiviral effect of G. hirsutum extract on Newcastle disease virus, since all the birds died.

Open Access Original Research Article

Saponin Fraction of Gongronema latifolium Reverses Dyslipidemia and Catalyzes Glucokinase in Lowering Blood Glucose Sugar in Streptozocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

G. O. Igile, I. A. Iwara, O. O. Ekpe, B. I. A. Mgbeje, M. U. Eteng

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34310

Objective: Gongronema latifolium (GL) is a bitter tasting leaf used in Nigeria as spice in food, and as herb for the treatment of diabetes, malaria and cardiovascular disease. Research work on the anti-diabetic activities of the whole leaf extract has been carried out, but none on the saponin fraction of the leaf. A preliminary study showed that saponin-rich ethyl acetate fraction (GSF) of GL was active as an anti-diabetic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sugar-lowering and anti-lipidemic effects of ethyl acetate saponin fraction (GSF) of GL in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Albino Wistar rats.

Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with 200 mg/kg bw and 400 mg/kg bw dose of saponin fraction of Gongronema latifolium twice daily for 21 days.  The effects of GL fraction on fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum glucose, serum insulin, body weight, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c, triglyceride (TG) and C-peptides concentrations were determined.

Results:  After 21 days treatment, GSF administration showed significantly lower FBG concentration compared to the diabetic control (DC) group. GSF increased serum insulin concentration and C-peptide levels dose-dependently. The fraction also decreased liver weight, liver cholesterol, plasma cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration dose-dependently. GSF 1 and 2 increased HDL-c and lowered the plasma concentration of LDL-c and VLDL-c. GSF significantly (p<0.05) increased body weights of diabetic animals time-dependently taken at 7 days interval. 

Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that GSF may provide alternative sugar-lowering effect in diabetes, and may have the potential to reverse dyslipidemia and improve body weight gain in type 2 diabetes conditions.

Open Access Review Article

Quality Control Tests for Ophthalmic Pharmaceuticals: Pharmacopoeial Standards and Specifications

Md. Sahab Uddin, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md. Tanvir Kabir, Jinnat Ruksana Setu, Sonia Zaman, Yesmin Begum, Md. Shah Amran

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/33924

The therapeutically performance of the pharmaceuticals must be constant and expectable.  In order to claim a pharmaceutical to be a quality drug, it must fulfill certain standards and specifications. The quality of pharmaceuticals is strongly related to the patient’s well-being. Quality control (QC) is an historical process in which proof is obtained that the appropriate level of quality has been achieved. QC can have no effect on the quality of the pharmaceuticals. It is merely a measuring process. QC must ensure that all the finished products contain active ingredients that comply with the qualitative and quantitative composition of the finished product described in the product registration dossier. The books containing the standards for drugs and other related substances are known as pharmacopeias. The pharmacopoeias contain a list of drugs and other related substances regarding their source, description, tests, formulas for preparing the same, action and uses, doses, storage conditions, etc. Ophthalmic pharmaceuticals are agents specially designed to be applied to the eyes. Among the drug products, ophthalmic pharmaceuticals are most important since eye is very sensitive and is easily irritated if the composition of the ophthalmic pharmaceutical is not suitable. The QC tests for ophthalmic pharmaceuticals are different in the different pharmacopoeias like IP, BP, and USP. Therefore the aim of this review was to mention QC tests for ophthalmic pharmaceuticals based on quality requirements of the different pharmacopoeias.