Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nitrate Reductase Assay for Detection of Multi-drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Patients at National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory Zaria Nigeria

K. Mamuda, O. S. Olonitola, E. D. Jatau, E. Nicholas

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/33705

Aims: To evaluate nitrate reductase assay for detection of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among patients at National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory Zaria Nigeria.

Study Design: Hospital based cross sectional study

Place and Duration of Study: National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory Zaria Nigeria from December 2015 to June 2016.

Methodology: A total of 437 re-treatment patients’ samples were screened for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB), 72 were smear positive. Out of 72 smears positive, 62 were culture positive, using Lowenstein Jensen medium, 57 were found to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) using immunochromatographic test. In this study the susceptibility of 57 MTBC isolates to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR) and Ethambutol (EMB) was determined by Lowenstein Jensen proportion method (LJPM) and Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA)

Results: The sensitivity and specificity of NRA compared to that of LJPM were observed to be 98% and 89%, 98% and 92%, 64% and 80%, 68% and 77% for RIF, INH, STR, and EMB respectively. Positive predictive values were 91%, 93%, 87% and 83% for RIF, INH, STR and EMB respectively. Negative predictive values were 80%, 92%, 67% and 90% for RIF, INH, STR and EMB respectively .Overall, the sensitivity, specificity ,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of NRA in detecting MDR-TB were 90%,82%,85%and 73% respectively. Good agreement was found in all the tests with κ values of 0.63, 0.61, 0.61 and 0.62 for RIF, INH, EMB and MDR-TB respectively only STR shows moderate agreements with k value of 0.59.

Conclusion: In the emergence of MDR-TB, the NRA may be of great importance due to its higher sensitivity and specificity for the rapid detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance, the two most important drugs for tuberculosis treatment. On the basis of our findings, NRA has the potential to be a useful tool for accurate detection of MDR-TB in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Dacryodes edulis Methanolic Leaf Extract

Olasunkanmi Oluwaseun Oyetunji, Adeniyi Paul Opeyemi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/33831

 

Dacryodes edulis is used for the treatment of several ailments such as malaria, oral and ear infection. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of Dacryodes edulis methanolic leaf extract as well as its rate of killing on some selected bacterial strains.

The antimicrobial activity of the crude extract obtained was determined against panel of bacteria using agar-well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC), phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the crude extract were also studied.

The extract showed appreciable antibacterial activity against Bacillus polymyxa (LIO), Bacillus stearothermophilus (NCIB 8222), Citrobacter freundii (LIO), Trueperella pyogenes (LIO), Enterococcus faecalis (NCIB 775), Escherichia coli (NCIB 86), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NCIB 418), Micrococcus luteus (NCIB 196), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIB 950), Shigella sp. (LIO) and Staphylococcus aureus (NCIB 8588) at a final concentration of 35 mg/mL. The mean diameter of zones of inhibition exhibited by the extract ranged between 12.0±0.0 mm and 23.3±1.2 mm while conventional streptomycin and ampicillin diameter of zones of inhibition ranged from 13.0±0.0 mm – 31.0±1.0 mm and 18.3±0.6 mm - 29.3±1.5 mm respectively. The MIC exhibited by the extract against susceptible test organisms ranged between 0.27 mg/mL and 4.375 mg/mL while MBC ranged between 0.55 mg/mL and 17.5 mg/mL. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids. The antioxidant property result revealed 50% inhibition of the extract at 0.01045 mg/mL while that of the standard (ascorbic acid) was 0.00288 mg/mL. The time kill assay showed that the percentage of the cells killed increased with increasing concentrations of the extract, as well as, contact time intervals.

In conclusion, D. edulis methanolic leaf extract consisted of various phytochemical compounds which accounted for the appreciable antioxidant activity as well as the antibacterial activity exhibited against some of the test organisms used for this study and this supports its usefulness in folklore remedies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Profile and Some Reproductive Indices of Male Albino Rats Treated with Ethanolic Stem Bark Extract of Picralima nitida

E. C. Mbegbu, R. I. Odo, D. C. Edeh, I. R. Obidike

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34359

Aim: To evaluate the effects of graded doses of ethanolic stem bark extract of Picralima nitida on haematological profile, some serum reproductive hormones, sperm reserves and testicular histomorphology of male albino rats.

Study Design: Thirty male albino rats, weighing between 120 and 200 grams were randomly assigned into six groups of five rats each. Group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water (normal control). Groups B, C and D received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of the extract respectively. Group E received 2.5 mg/kg BW of CdCl2 (negative control), while Group F received 5 mg/kg BW of Sildenafil (positive control); orally every other day for six weeks.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Laboratory Animal Unit), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, between June and September, 2015.

Methodology: At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for haematology and serology, whereas testicular sections were collected for histopathology following the standards procedures. Data obtained were analyzed by One-way ANOVA.

Results: The result showed that all doses of the extract increased neutrophil count, but decreased (P < 0.05) monocyte and RBC counts; 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of the extract decreased (P < 0.05) PCV values; and only 400 mg/kg of the extract reduced (P < 0.05) HB values. 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of the extract, and 2.5 mg/kg BW of CdCl2 decreased (P < 0.05) serum testosterone and sperm counts. The normal control, 100 mg/kg BW of the extract and 5 mg/kg BW of Sildenafil had normal testicular histoarchitecture; whereas 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of the extract, and 2.5 mg/kg BW of CdCl2 had slight, moderate and severe degeneration of the germinal epithelium and interstitium, with depletion of sperm cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules respectively.

Conclusion: This study revealed that treatment with ethanolic stem bark extract of Picralima nitida above 100 mg/kg BW adversely affected haematological and reproductive parameters in male albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Victims of Road Traffic Crashes Presenting in Hospitals in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. A Prospective Pilot Study

Sydney E. Ibeanusi, Tom Sough

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34331

Background: Road Traffic Crashes are indeed major contributor of disability and death globally. Accurate and reliable data on actual number of victims of road traffic crashes in various countries is required to understand the burden of road traffic crashes and to implement interventions to reduce crashes in any particular country. In Nigeria, there are often conflicting data from various agencies and sources on the actual number of road traffic crashes and the number of affected victims. This study therefore evaluates the victims of road traffic crashes presenting to the hospitals in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria and compares the findings with data arising from the Federal Road Safety Commission over the same period.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study of victims of road traffic crashes presenting in the hospitals in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. Data of victims of road traffic collisions presenting to the hospitals in the FCT was collected from all identified hospitals, over a period of 3 months. Data was analysed and results presented as descriptive statistics.

Results: During the period under study, a total of 819 victims of RTC were recorded from the various hospitals across the FCT. The bulk of the patients were within (16 – 40) years (n=598{71.9%} with males constituting about 75.3% of the victims. One hundred and twenty seven (15.5%) of the injuries was fatal. About two-third of the victims were taken to the public hospitals (n = 543 {66.3%}). Majority of the victims of RTC were passengers in the motorized vehicles including motorcycle (n =410 {49%}) and pedestrians constituted 17.9% (147) of the victims.

Conclusion: This pilot study confirms the high incidence of RTC in the FCT Abuja Nigeria and the existing disparity between the data of victims of road traffic crashes emanating from the hospitals and data published by the Government agencies in Nigeria during the same period. There is the need to harmonise data from various stakeholders in an attempt to establishing a comprehensive and reliable database of victims of road traffic crashes in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Curcumin on Blood Glucose Level and Some Neurobehavioral Responses in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

U. A. Garkuwa, A. W. Alhassan, Y. Tanko

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34323

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on blood glucose level and neurobehavioral response in Alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss Albino mice. The animals were divided into five (5) groups of four each (n=4). Group I served as control and received distilled water, group II, III, IV and V were diabetic and received olive oil 1 ml/kg, glibenclamide 1 mg/kg, curcumin 50 mg/kg and curcumin 100 mg/kg respectively. Diabetes was induced using Alloxan (150 mg/kg). All administrations were done for duration of 21 days. Blood glucose level was determined using glucose oxidase principle and cognitive impairment was determined using novel object recognition task (NORT). The result obtained from this study showed that curcumin at both doses (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the fasting blood glucose level and recorded an improvement in memory, recognitive and discriminatory indices when compared with the diabetic  control group. This study demonstrated that curcumin significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated diabetes-induced cognitive impairment in the NORT. The findings of this study suggest that curcumin may ameliorate diabetes-induced cognitive impairment in Swiss albino mice.