Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Mangifera indica (Mango) Stem and Leaf Extracts on Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

S. U. Diso, M. Ali, S. I. Mukhtar, M. Garba

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/31127

Background: Medicinal plants have been sources of a number of important compounds which have been discovered during last century. In the light of their established therapeutic efficacy, the pharmaceutical industries are using crude extracts of medicinal plants for manufacturing drugs.

Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activities of Mangifera indica (leaves and stem) and its major antimicrobial constituents (phytochemicals).

Methodology: The aqueous and chloroform extracts from the leaves and stem of the plant was tested using well diffusion method for their antimicrobial activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wound, skin and urine samples of patients attending Muhammad Abdullah Wase specialist Hospital, Kano.

Results: The result shows that some extracts were active against the microorganisms tasted. Statistical analysis of the result shows that the extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against the isolates tested with the highest zone of inhibition of 16 mm, 14 mm, 17 mm, 15 mm and 15.00 mm for the five isolates used respectively. The chloroform extracts of the plant showed higher zones of inhibition compared to aqueous extracts. Preliminary phytochemical analyses of the plant showed that both stem and leaf extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, terpenoid, Anthraquinones, reducing sugar, amino acid, flavonoids, steroid, saponins, cardiac glycosides, resin and phenols.

Conclusion: Mangifera indica can be used as antibacterial agent against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Efficacy of Co-artemisinin in the Treatment of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Gombe State, Nigeria

M. D. Hassan, M. M. Dauda, Y. Mohammed, B. Muhammad, A. A. Kudi, S. C. Muhammad, M. M. Manga, A. Umar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/32303

Aim: To evaluate the potency and efficacy of co-artemisinin brands used in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gombe State North-Eastern Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A total of 185 patients with malaria aged between 5-60 years attending Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe were recruited for the study between April to October, 2014. All patients were weighed and administered with one of the four study drugs for three days under the supervision of a medical staff. Blood samples were collected in an EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) bottles before and during treatment and both thick and thin films were made for parasitaemia estimation. The PCR was used to distinguish recrudescence from new infection in case of treatment failure. Nested PCR was conducted to compare the genetic polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum genes. PCR products were resolved by electrophoresis on ethidium bromide stained 1.5% Agarose.

Results and Conclusion: Arthemether Lumefantrine and Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine recorded 100% cure rate while Artesunate sulfadoxine-pyrimethemin and Artesunate Amodiaquine recorded a cure rates of 91.4% and 90.5% respectively after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) correction. There was no significant difference between the drugs in terms of antiplasmodial activities (p = 0.780). A total of 15 out of 185 patients came down with symptom similar to that of malaria, 7 of 15 (46.7%) shows similarities in genotyping in pre and post treatment infection (reinfection) and 8 of 15 (53.3%) shows no similarities in the genotype from pre and post treatment infection. Statistically there was no significant difference between pre and post PCR genotyping (p = 0.203).

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Assessment of Parkia biglobosa Ethanolic Root Extract in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

R. U. Ukpanukpong, R. N. Uyabeme, I. A. Adekunle, C. O. Adeleke

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/24877

Aim: To investigate the antidiabetic effect of Parkia biglobosa ethanolic root extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji Arakeji Osun State, Nigeria, between October 2014 and August, 2015.

Methodology: Sixty adult female Wistar rats weighing between 120-190 g were divided into six study groups I, II, III, IV, V, VI, (n=8) weighing between 120-190 g. Group 1 was designated as positive control and received distilled water, group II was designated as negative control and received (1 ml) of  streptozotocin, group III was designated as diabetes induced and orthodox and received (1 ml) of Insulin, groups IV, V and VI were designated as diabetes induced and extract treated groups and received (250 mg/dl, 500 mg/dl and 1000 mg/dl) respectively.

Results: The phytochemical screening of the ethanolic root extract showed the presence of flavonoids, tannin, saponins, cardiac glycosides, phenolics, terpenoid and oxalate. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose levels of diabetes treated groups VI, V and VI at the end of the experiment which portrays the therapeutic efficacy of Parkia biglobosa ethanolic root extract in ameliorating diabetic condition. There was a significant decrease in Alanine transaminases (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alkaline phosphotase in extract treated groups compared with negative control. However, Total cholesterol, High density lipoprotein (HDL), and Triglycerides (TG)  shown increase which was not significant compared to the negative control but Low density lipoprotein (LDL) depicted decrease which was significant compared with the negative control.

Conclusion: The results obtained from all these assays justify the therapeutic efficacy of Parkia biglobosa root extract to ameliorate diabetic condition.  

Open Access Original Research Article

In- vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Effects of Euphorbia abyssinica (Desert Candle) Extract

Tarh Jacqueline Ebob, Iroegbu Christian Ukwuoma

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/31914

Aim: This study wastoevaluate extracts of Euphorbia abyssinicaa cactus-like plant of the family Euphorbiaceae commonly called desert candle or Kechiehbih by the kendem people of south-West Cameroon, for anti-fungal activity.

Study Design: The Randomized Complete Block Design was used in the study, and the means that were significantly different were separated using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria, between April 2011 and August 2012.

Methodology: The stem-bark and latex of this plant were extracted using 50%-methanol, water and absolute methanol. Antifungal effect of the extracts was evaluated using agar, and macro-broth dilution methods as well as the Time kill assay.

Results: Strains of Aspegillus, Rhizopus, Mucor, Rodotorula, Geotricum, Basidiobolus, Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Candida species were used as test fungi for the study. The extraction of the stem-bark yielded18%,15% and 25% for absolute methanol, water and 50% methanol, respectively, while the latex yielded 13%, 12% and 15% for absolute methanol, water and 50% methanol extracts respectively. The growth inhibition of the fungi tested lasted for 7-14 or more days of incubation on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates. MIC range was 0.39-50.0 mg/ml for the stem bark extracts and 1.95- 50.0 for the latex extracts. There was a significant difference in the growth inhibition by the 50% methanol extracts of the stem-bark and latex (P=0.5) with significant means of 5.361 and 7.1086 respectively. Candida albicans was the most susceptible of the yeasts tested (MIC90 0.313 mg/ml) and significant mean of, 0.896 and M. gypseum the least susceptible of the dermatophytes tested(significant mean 14.641).In the time kill assay, the results showed that T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum and E. floccosumcells were killed by the higher concentrations (4MIC and 2MIC) of the plant extracts.

Conclusion: The plant extracts showed broad spectrum of activity against a fungi tested. Results authenticated the ethno-medicinal applications of Euphorbia abyssinica for the treatment of skin infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Studies on Loranthus bengwensis Ethanolic Leaf Extract in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

R. U. Ukpanukpong, I. A. Adekunle, R. N. Uyabeme, C. O. Adeleke

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/24878

Aim: To investigate the biochemical effect of Loranthus bengwensis ethanolic leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of  Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji Arakeji Osun State, Nigeria, between October 2014 and August, 2015.

Methodology: Adult sixty  female (60) Wistar Albino rats were divided into six study groups I, II, III, IV, V, VI, (n=10) weighing between 230-250 g. Group 1was designated as positive control and received distilled water, group II was designated as negative control and received (60 mg/kg) of  streptozotocin, group III was designated as diabetes induced and orthodox and received (1 ml) of Insulin, groups IV, V and VI were designated as diabetes induced and extract treated and received (100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg) respectively.

Results: The phytochemical screening of the ethanolic leaf extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannin, saponins, cardiac glycosides, phenolics, terpenoid and quinines. There was a drastic reduction in blood glucose levels of diabetes treated groups VI, V and VI at the end of the experiment which portrays the therapeutic efficacy of Loranthus bengwensis ethanolic leaf extract in ameliorating diabetic condition. However, the extract was more efficient at 400 mg/kg compared to 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg respectively. This indicates that ethanolic leaf extract of Loranthus bengwensis is relatively more efficient at higher concentration. Other biochemical parameters such as; Alanine transaminases (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alkaline phosphotase. Lipid profile; Total cholesterol, High density lipoprotein (HDL), Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglycerides (TG), as well as body weight indices were considered.

Conclusion: The results obtained from all these assays as well as the blood glucose assay justifies the therapeutic efficacy of Loranthus bengwensis on ameliorate diabetic condition.