Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extract against Selected Microorganisms

Foluke Odutayo, Cajethan Ezeamagu, Taofikat Kabiawu, Daniel Aina, Grace Mensah-Agyei

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/33523

Aims: The increasing microbial drug resistance in recent times has necessitated the search for an alternative antimicrobial agents derived from natural sources. Chromolaena odorata L. (Asteraceae) is one of such natural sources that has been reported to possess healing properties. In this study, the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties of C. odorata leaf extract were investigated.

Methodology: The leaves of C. odorata were collected from Babcock University garden, authenticated, prepared and extracted following standard procedures with methanol and ethyl-ether as extraction solvents. Phytochemical screening was carried out according standard protocol while antimicrobial screening was performed according to agar well diffusion method on the following organisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC19582), Shigella flexneri (KZN), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Enterococcus cloacae (ATCC 13047), Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6830, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) Enterococcus faecalis (KZN) and Neurospora crassa.

Results: Of the nine phytochemicals screened (terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatannin, phenols and anthraquinones), only one (phlobatannin) was absent in both solvent extracts. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts indicated least and highest zones of inhibition of 9 and 23 mm against Shigella flexneri (KZN) and Shigella sonnei (ATCC19930) respectively and fungicidal potency of 100% within 24 h on Neurospora crassa.

Conclusion: Chromolaena odorata extract possesses antimicrobial activity and thus, represents a promising source for medicines of which when carefully tapped and explored has enormous therapeutic potentials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Body Positions on Lungs Volume in Asthmatic Patients: A Cross-sectional Study

Wai Wai Myint, Mila Nu Nu Htay, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Low Renjue, Gan Shirying, Nur Syamimi binti Yuan, Aaron Balanti Mojini

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/33901

Aim: The purpose of our research was to investigate the effect of different body positions on lungs volume by conducting pulmonary function test (PFT) values of the asthmatic patients. The objectives were (1) to assess the correlation between pulmonary function and posture in adult patients with asthma, (2) to determine the best position with higher lungs volume that was preferable for the asthmatic patients to relieve the asthma attack and for rehabilitation approach.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Reconstructive and Rehabilitative Center at University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) between December 2015 and June 2016.

Methodology: The total of 30 participants was recruited in this study. Among them, 15 participants were asthmatic patients and 15 participants were non-asthmatic, control persons. All the participants were between 19-25 years of age and they were enrolled after they had signed a written consent. Participants were selected using the inclusion criteria and Spiro Excel PC based pulmonary function test (PFT Medicaid Systems) were administered. Spirometer measurements (FVC, FEV1) were taken in the standing, sitting and supine positions. Each measurement was taken two times and the average values were analyzed. The order of the body positions was randomized.  

Results: In the asthmatic group, the best position was supine with a mean±standard deviation (SD) of FEV1/FVC, 77.93±17.37. Whereas, in control group, the best position was standing with a mean±SD of FEV1/FVC, 90.12±5.97. 

The second best positions were sitting position in the asthmatic group (75.37±16.37) and supine position in control group (89.70±8.79). Finally, the standing position had the lowest lungs function in the asthmatic group (73.63±17.08) and sitting position in control group (88.53±11.17). 

Conclusion: Our study showed that supine was the best position for measuring FEV1 and FVC of asthmatic participants. Therefore, supportive positions such as supine or leaning to the wall are suggested to improve pulmonary function of the patients, especially during asthmatic attack.

Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Wounds Swabs to Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina

O. Oluyele, M. K. Oladunmoye

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/33837

Aims: There is an ever growing interest in investigating different groups of plants to identify their potential therapeutic applications. This is due to a tremendous historical legacy in folk medicine use of plants as remedy for treating diseases. Vernonia amygdalina have been shown to exhibit profound ethnomedical and pharmacological properties. The present study investigated the susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infections to extracts of Vernonia amygdalina.

Study Design: This study was designed to investigate the susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound sites of patients attending four hospitals in Akure to extracts of Vernonia amygdalina.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out in the Department of Microbiology Federal University of Technology Akure, between November 2015 and April 2016.

Methodology: Fresh leaves of Vernonia amygdalina were collected between November 2015 and January 2016 from a farm in Akure and identified at the Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University Technology, Akure (FUTA). The leaf extraction was carried out using four solvents (60% ethanol, cold water, hot water and chloroform). Agar well diffusion technique was used for susceptibility testing of isolates.

Results: The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed various constituents which includes: flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenols, cardiac glycoside, saponins and tannins. The ethanol extract showed the lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration value (12.5 mg/ml), while the chloroform extract showed the lowest zone of inhibition (10.33 mm) against the S. aureus isolates at 100 mg/ml. The ethanol extract of the plant showed the highest potency against the tested isolates, while the chloroform extract showed the lowest efficacy.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts can be used as potential herbs for drug development for the treatment of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. This may also help reduce the overdependence on commercial antibiotics and cases of antibiotics resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Pressure and Plasma Levels of Blood Glucose among Subjects Screening by Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Indigenous Area, Ondo State

Adedeji David Atere, David Bolaji Akinbo, Olaiya Paul Abiodun, Henry Chijindu Okpoli

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34184

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the most devastating diseases and causes an estimated one million deaths, mostly children living in sub-Saharan Africa. There is evidence that higher glucose level increases the attractiveness for Anopheles feeding. This study was initiated to ascertain the reliability of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria in managing plasma blood glucose and blood pressure among people living in indigenous areas with resource-limited settings. This is a cross sectional study and it was conducted between February to April, 2017. A total number of 150 subjects aged between 18 – 80 years, who were sub-divided into subjects with diabetic mellitus only (Subjects with DM only), subjects with neither DM nor malaria parasite (NDM or MP), subjects with both DM and MP and subjects with MP only attending the clinic were randomly selected for the study. Blood pressure was taken using a sphygmomanometer. Blood levels of fasting blood glucose were determined using standard spectrophotometric method and RDT based on antigens was carried out on aliquots of whole blood. Data obtained were statistically analyzed appropriately. P<0.05 was considered significant. The mean blood level of FBG was significantly lower while the mean level of SBP was significantly higher in subjects with MP positive compared with subjects with MP negative. FBG showed positive significant correlation with SBP in subjects with MP only. In conclusion, this study confirmed that malaria contributes to the development of hypertension and low blood levels of glucose among subjects living in indigenous area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protein Syntheses in Epithelial-mesenchyme Transitions as Markers of Platelet-induced Cultured Cancer Cell Proliferation

Brian J. Poindexter, Lenard M. Lichtenberger, Dexing Fang, Roger J. Bick

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/34071

Aims: To study the changes in protein content and protein patterns in platelet activated epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cultured colon cancer cells.

Place and Duration of Study: UT McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas, USA. Between May, 2015 and May, 2017.

Methodology: Mouse platelets were added to cultured colon cancer cells and fluorescence deconvolution microscopy was performed with image acquisitions being stacked, volume rendered and modeled to yield protein localizations, quantity and patterns.

Results: Studies identified and localized proteins involved in cell transitions. Co-culturing resulted in an increased cell number, increased cell size and increased protein content. Fibronectin content was increased to a greater extent than laminin; G-actin content was also increased indicating up-regulation of synthesis, and the fibroblastic-type cells were much longer with the fibronectin containing fibrillar extensions suggesting increased adhesion was occurring. Greater fibronectin than laminin synthesis indicates cells undergoing a change to matrix protein form rather than a basement membrane, polarized epithelial cell type, observations which suggest platelet activation endows the cells with adhesion and invasion abilities.

Conclusions: The study showed that platelet activation of cancer cells drives endothelial cells into a matrix-compatible mesenchymal form and that the epithelial to mesenchymal transition occurs when surface cells lose polarity and cell-cell adhesion properties. These cells become migratory and invasive for rapid and facilitated cancer progression, due to enhanced adhesion and synthesis of specific proteins and cell extensions.