Open Access Minireview Article

Rationale of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation in the Frame of the Magnocellular Theory of Dyslexia

Carlo Aleci

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/32962

In the last decades evidence has been collected that the depletion of the visual magnocellular population (a fast-conduction cellular system made of large ganglion neurons) plays a pathogenetical role in developmental dyslexia. Smaller size of the magnocells and reduction of their overall number in a proportion of disabled readers, in fact, are believed to hamper the visual processing of the written text.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important structural parts of the cellular membrane and of the cytoskeleton, and are pivotal for the correct development and functioning of neurons. Magnocells are thought to be particularly vulnerable to PUFAs deficiency, due to the large extent of their plasma membrane: so, reduced availability of polyunsaturated fatty acids is argued to selectively affect the magnocellular population.

Indeed, PUFAs deficiency has been reported in a consistent proportion of disabled readers. This finding has led to hypothesize this deficiency may play a main role in the reading problems of patients by hindering the normal development of their magnocellular pathway.

Based on these assumption there is some evidence that dietary supplementation with a predefined combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids has a beneficial effect on the reading performance and behavior of dyslexics. Here the rationale for this line of intervention is reported.

The conclusion is that supplementation of dyslexic children with PUFAs is worth to be considered, despite its effectiveness in improving their academic skills needs further clarification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioassay-guided Isolation of Antidermatophytic Compounds from Piper longum L.

Jayshree Das, Dhruva Kumar Jha, Jagannath Biswakarma, Rudragoud S. Policegoudra, Afjal Hussain Mazumder, Mrinmoy Das

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/31874

Aims: Piper longum, a medicinal plant, grows wildly in Northeast India. In our earlier study, the chloroform extract from leaves of P. longum L. (Piperaceae) exhibited promising in vitro antidermatophytic activity. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate and identify the antidermatophytic compounds present in P. longum (leaf).

Study Design: Air dried powdered leaves (100 g) of P. longum were extracted with petroleum ether. After removal of the petroleum ether soluble part, the residue left over was extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure at 40°C using rotary evaporator, lyophilized and kept in glass vials till further use. Chloroform extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activity of the isolated fractions was determined by broth microdilution assay. Chemical compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam, India and Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, between Jan 2011 and Oct 2011.

Results: Repeated column chromatography afforded a yellowish semi solid mass. The fraction showed significant antidermatophytic activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1.25 mg mL-1 for T. mentagrophytes (MTCC 8476) and 2.5 mg mL-1 for T. rubrum (MTCC 8477). GC-MS analysis of the fraction revealed the presence of nine compounds namely Benzene (2-methyl-1-propenyl) (5.19%), 2,4-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol (8.11%), lb-Bisabolene (12.48%), 2,8-decadiyne (13.79%), Methyl 14-methylpentadecanoate (15.41%), methyl linolenate (25.52%), octadecanoic acid, methyl ester (5.31%), 11-dodecen-1-ol (7.63%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate (6.54%).

Conclusion: The results highlighted the antidermatophytic potential of P. longum. Further investigation should be focused on the active constituents that could be used for development of antidermatophytic agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Potential of Extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit. Leaves on Some Gram Positive Bacterial Isolates

Ojo Omolara Comfort, Giwa Holy Johnson

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/32562

This study investigated the antibacterial potential of the methanolic extract and other different fractions obtained from the crude extract of Hyptis suaveolens leaves on some selected Gram positive bacterial isolates. It also assessed the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the test isolates. 

Powdered sample of Hyptis suaveolens was extracted with methanol and water in ratio 3:2 and partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol in ascending order of their polarity. The filtrates were concentrated with rotary evaporator and kept for further use. All extracts were screened for antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were also determined. Antibiotics sensitivity test was performed using Kirby Bauer method of antibiotics susceptibility test.

The results showed that the extract had activity at a concentration of 35 mg/ml on 8 of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 14.50 ± 0.71 mm and 18.00 ± 1.41 mm for test bacteria while the zones of inhibition for the standard antibiotics ranged between 16.00 ± 0.00 mm and 23.00 ± 1.41 mm. The zones of inhibition of the active fraction (ethyl acetate) ranged between 12.00 ± 0.00 mm and 17.00 ± 2.83 mm. The MICs of the extract ranged between 1.09 mg/ml and 35.00 mg/ml while that of the fraction ranged between 0.16 mg/ml and 5.00 mg/ml. The MBCs of the extract ranged between 2.19 mg/ml and 35 mg/ml while that of the active fraction ranged between 0.31 mg/ml and 5.00 mg/ml. All the test bacteria showed 100% resistance to amoxicillin and had multiple antibiotics resistance to other commercially available antibiotics. The study concluded that the plant possessed antimicrobial properties at higher concentrations and could be used in the treatment of various infections. Although, ethyl acetate showed highest antibacterial activity, its concentration was much less than the crude extract. Hence, the study also concluded thatethyl acetate; among other solvents was the most suitable for the extraction of antimicrobial compounds from the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential 5-Fluorouracil Encapsulated mPEG-Chitosan Nanogels for Controlling Drug Release

Dai Hai Nguyen

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/32493

Aims: The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG)-conjugated chitosan (CS) nanogels, mPEG-CS, at different molar ratios for 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) delivery (5-FU-loaded mPEG-CS nanogels).

Study Design: The chemical cross-linking of those polymers were synthesized by using 4-Nitrophenyl chloroformate as coupling reagent.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biomaterials & Bioengineering, Institute of Applied Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, between February and June 2015.

Methodology: The chemical structure of mPEG-CS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR).

Results: The particle sizes of 5-FU-loaded nanogels were nearly spherical in shape with diameter range of 20-50 nm, determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Especially, whereas the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of mPEG-CS nanogels were independent of the molar ratio of mPEG, there was one factor that particularly stand out, 5-FU release behavior.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that mPEG-CS nanogels present potential for controlled release of 5-FU working as a delivery system in cancer therapy.

Open Access Review Article

Role and Effectiveness of Simulation-based Training in Raising Family Medicine Residents’ Clinical Resuscitation and Critical Care Skills

Majid Kh. Al Harthi, Raouf M. Afifi, Mohamed A. Tashkandi, Ashraf E. Saad, Yousef Afifi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/32234

Background: Family medicine (FM) physicians are bound to providing healthcare services at a variety of clinical and community settings. They should be equipped to competently handle health emergencies in a multitude of professional procedures. Medical education on patients often raises safety issues; simulation-based medical education (SBME) was a solution enabling education in a risk free environment.

Aim: To analyze the impact of a SBME on Family medicine residents’ performance in critical resuscitation procedures.

Methods: A systematic review of published articles between 1996 and 2016 was conducted. Systematized literature search through ranked search engines was done. All original research articles on SBME published between 1997 and 2012 were examined.

Results: The analysis included 6 relevant studies selected. The studies’ venues included either academic or healthcare settings in Netherlands, Switzerland; Greece, and Canada. The studies’ populations were mainly family medicine, and general practitioner, residents who participated in simulated resuscitation/life support educational activities. The number of participants in each SBMEactivity ranged between 28 and 72. The study of the Greekexperimentincluded 434 residents. An interventional design was advocated, and a self-reported questionnaire to evaluate participants’ skills pursuant to SBME activities before and/or after the learning activities was unanimously utilized. The main SBME focus involved patient resuscitation and critical event care. Most studies came to significantly positive conclusions about SBME in raising residents’ resuscitation knowledge, skill, and behavior.

Conclusions: The role of interactive SBM teaching in preparingFM residents to rescuing and resuscitating the critically ill independently is now sufficiently evident. Despite such success potential, methods to achieve improved critical care competence advocating low cost simulated medical education solutions in low economic circumstances should be sought.