Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Psidium guajava on Some Enteric Bacterial Isolates of Public Health Importance

M. Ali, A. Yahaya, A. U. Zage, Z. M. Yusuf

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/31126

Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava and its major antibacterial constituents (Phytochemicals).

Materials and Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extracts from the leaves and stem bark of the plant was tested using well diffusion method for their antibacterial activity against some members Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from diarrheic stool sample (Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

Results: The result shows that the extracts were active against the microorganisms. The ethanolic extract of stem bark showed the highest zones of inhibition against tested organisms compared to aqueous extract. Statistical analysis of the result shows that the extracts demonstrated higher antibacterial activity against the isolates tested with the average zone of inhibition of 15.44 mm, 14.78 mm, 12.92 mm and 11.31 mm for E. coli, Shigella spp S. typhi and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts ranges between 6.25 – 100 mg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analyses showed that both stem bark and leaf extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, terpenoid, Anthraquinone, reducing sugar, amino acid, flavonoid,  saponins, glycosides and phenols.

Conclusion: The extracts of the plant demonstrated antibacterial activity due to presence of phytochemical constituents hence, the application of the decoction of leaf and stem bark of the plants in ethno medicine is justified.

Open Access Original Research Article

In utero Exposure to Oxcarbazepine Causes Congenital Anomalies in Albino Rat Fetuses

Hamida Hamdi, Abd El Wahab El Ghareeb, Asmaa M. Kandil, Osama M. Ahmed, Rania Yahia

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/32345

Aims: Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is a newer antiepileptic agent that has recently become increasingly used either as monotherapy or as an adjunct to other AEDs in adults, adolescents, and children with partial epilepsy. Our aim was to define the the potential risks of the anti-epileptic drug (OXC) orally administered daily to the pregnant rats.

Methodology: The pregnant rats administered from 7th till 20th day of gestation with 108 mg/kg oxcarbazepine (Human equivalent dose (HED)). All pregnant rats of the two groups were sacrificed and the growth parameters, skeletal malformation and the histopathology of liver, kidney and brain of the fetus were examined.

Results: Our results showed that Oxcarbazepine induced a reduction in the fetal  weight and length, delayed, weak and incomplete ossification, wavy ribs and the fetal  liver revealed histopathological changes, degenerated  hepatocytes possessed karyorrhexed or karyolysed nuclei, the congestion of blood vessels and sinusoids. Kidney revealed alternation changes, shrinked glomeruli, widened capsular space of the Bowman's capsule, hydrophobic degeneration of the tubules and cytoplasmic vacuole. Brain (cerebral cortex) showed neurodegenerative changes, marked neuronal cell degeneration, disorganization of the brain tissue, numerous pyknotised cells and vacuolization of the neuropil. Biochemical studies showed that OXC induced a reduction in the level GSH and catalase compared to control group.

Conclusion: These support and proof the potential risks of the OXC administration on fetus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation of Natural Polymeric Nanoparticles to Overcome Barriers for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

Jayanthi ., Shymala Bhaskaran

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/32428

Aims: The present paper focuses on natural polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), described in the literature as the most effective natural polymer that have been introduced in the last decades, We have recently developed an innovative approach to this aim: a new osteotropic biomaterial was prepared, based on the conjugation of natural polymer with the bisphosphonate drug alendronate sodium (ALS). Alendronate sodium causes oesophageal side effects as ulceration. Hence, preventing the free ALS from coming in direct contact with the GI mucosa thereby reducing the possibility of side effects.

Methodology: Nanoparticles were prepared by adding drop wise aqueous solution of drug to Chitosan (CS) solutions under stirring. Above solution added to aqueous solution containing stabilizer. Mannitol as bioprotectants were used to prevent particle aggregation and to reduce mechanical stress during freezing and drying processes.

Results: The prepared ALS-loaded NPs were investigated for their physicochemical, morphological and structural characteristics by dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, Entrapment efficacy and actual drug content were assessed by UV spectrophotometric method at 565 nm. In vitro dissolution tests performed in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids and phosphate buffer solution pH 6.8 revealed a prolonged release of ALS of 48 h. Improvement of nanoparticle stability after lyophilisation was observed in the presence of bioprotectants.

Conclusion: The ionic gelation method with low-MW chitosan was effective in achieving reproducible nanoparticles with the desired physico-chemical and safety characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Antihistamines and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Properties, Structure and Prediction of New Potential Drugs

Ronald Bartzatt

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/32695

Aims: To determine the molecular properties of common antihistamines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). To identify interrelationships among these two groups of drugs utilizing pattern recognition methods and statistical analysis.

Study Design: After determination of molecular properties, values thereof are examined using pattern recognition methods and other numerical analysis for underlying relationships and similarities.

Place and Duration of Study: Durham Science Center, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska from September 2016 to January 2017.

Methodology: Thirty compounds were identified as antihistamines and 27 compounds identified as NSAIDs. Properties such as Log P, molecular weight, polar surface area, etc. are determined.  Molecular properties are compared applying methods such as K-means cluster analysis, nearest neighbor joining, box plots, and statistical analysis in order to determine trends and underlying relationships. Pattern recognition techniques allow elucidation of underlying similarities.

Results: The molecular properties of all 57 drugs are tabulated for comparison and numerical analysis. Evaluation by Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way ANOVA indicated that antihistamines and NSAIDs’ values of Log P have equal medians and equal means. However, values of polar surface area (PSA) and number of rotatable bonds for these two groups do not have equal means and medians. Box plots indicated that Log P, PSA, and molecular weight values have significant overlap in range. Neighbor-joining method showed which drugs are most similar to each other.  K-means cluster analysis also divided these 57 drugs into six groups of highest similarity.  Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with 95% ellipses indicated all but four of the drugs fall within a 95% confidence region. Multiple regression analysis generated mathematical relationship for prediction of new drugs.

Conclusion:  These two groups of drugs show compelling similarities. PCoA showed all but four of 57 drugs come within a 95% confidence ellipsis. Neighbor joining and K-means cluster analysis showed drugs having similarities between the two groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Bark Extract of Bosweillia dalzielii against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rabbits

A. M. Sa’id, M. S. Ibrahim, J. A. Mashi, I. U. Daha

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/31357

Aim: This study assessed the hepatoprotective potential of aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in adult rabbits.

Study Design:  Fifteen adult rabbits weighing between 1.4-2.0 kg were divided into five groups (I, II, III, IV and V), where group I served as normal control, group II was the test control, while groups III, IV and V served as test groups. Paracetamol (300 mg/kg was administered to the test control and the test groups to induce hepatotoxicity. Groups III, IV and V were treated for 7 days with 200 mg/kg Silymarin, 150 mg/kg and 225 mg/kg/Body weight of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark extract respectively, while group II was left untreated and served as the test control.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano between August and November, 2015.

Methodology: Using standard laboratory procedures, liver function was assessed by the assay of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), total and direct bilirubin (TB and DB). Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA using SPSS. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered significant.

Results: The two doses of the plant extract showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect on Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity, as evident by the significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin alongside with improved histopathological liver sections compared to paracetamol-treated animals.

Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Boswellia dalzielii could serve as a good alternative to relieve the toxic effect of paracetamol on rabbit liver. And also, it could provide a suitable source for new drug development.