Background: Several studies have examined various factors that affect block design test performance, yet none has examined the effect of hand dominance. Block design performance is used as a measure of visuospatial functioning. It is important, therefore, to assess whether handedness influences performance because the results could affect the treatment and management of different patient groups. Therefore, we aimed to detect whether right- and left-handed groups perform differently on the block design test, which could improve the management of patients.
Methods: Twenty normal healthy subjects were recruited, with an equal number of right- (RH) and left-handed (LH) subjects (n=10 in each group). Age and education were matched between the groups. All participants completed the block design test to assess their visuospatial functioning. Mediana, minimum (min) and maximum (max) scores were calculated and compared between the two groups. A non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was done using SPSS 22 to find mean Rank, Sum of Rank and significance values between these two groups.
Results: There was no significant difference between the mean block design test scores of the two groups. The right-handed group scored slightly higher than the left-handed group.
Conclusion: Right- and left-handed people have similar visuospatial memory performance, but those who are right-handed may perform slightly better. A larger sample size is needed to ensure the reliability of the results.
Renal disease constitute an enormous health burden globally and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study aims to determine the spectrum of renal diseases admitted into the medical wards of a new teaching hospital – Benue State University Teaching Hospital Makurdi, Nigeria.
Methodology: This was a retrospective analysis of patients admitted into the medical wards for renal diseases from January 2013 to December 2015.
Results: A total of 1,147 patients were admitted of which 329 had renal disease. The mean age of the patients was 28.9 ± 11.4. The most prevalent renal diseases were chronic kidney disease (CKD) 147 (44.7%), acute kidney injury 104 (31.6%), HIV associated nephropathy 22 (6.7%) and obstructive uropathy 21 (6.4%). Others were urinary tract infections 18 (5.5%), nephrotic syndrome 12 (3.6%) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 5 (1.5%). Two hundred and fifty seven (78.1%) were discharged home, 15 (4.6%) were referred to other hospitals while 57 (17.3%) died.
Conclusion: Renal disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria. This underscores an urgent need to institute measures for prevention and early detection of renal disease. This will help to improve outcome as well as reduce the burden of kidney disease.
This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of oral administration of T. occidentalis against copper induced oxidative stress. Forty two adult male Wistar rats were divided equally into six groups. Group 1 were orally gavaged with standard animal feed only, group 2-6, in addition to normal feed received oral treatment of 0.3 mg/kg b.w copper daily, group 3 and 4 received 250 mg/kg b.w and 500 mg/kg b.w aqueous leaf extract of T. occidentalis respectively, while group 5 and 6 were treated with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg b.w methanol extract of T. occidentalis. The oral administration of 500 mg/kg b.w proved most effective in the restoration of the antioxidant enzyme status, while the hepatoprotective activity of the extracts was completely effective on the AST levels, total bilirubin, and serum albumin levels. The results for renal function markers show that only 500 mg/kg b.w methanol extract completely restored the urea and potassium levels. This indicates that T. occidentalis could ameliorate the antioxidant status in copper-induced oxidative stress.
Aims: To evaluate the physicochemical profile of commercial batches of eCG, in order to find if differences can be related to their biological activity.
Study Design: Commercial eCG was analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and in vivo bioassay.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology (IPEN-CNEN) and Animal antibody production Laboratory (Animal Science Institute), between June 2013 and April 2014.
Methodology: Two commercial eCG batches for veterinary use (I and II) and an eCG official International Standard from the World Health Organization (WHO) were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Additionally, two experiments were designed to validate the biological activity. In experiment 1, groups of prepubertal 21–25 day old Wistar female rats (n = 6/group) received the equivalent to 0 UI (saline) and 10 IU of eCG of each one of these preparations. Autopsy was performed 48 h later and ovaries were removed and weighed. The experiment 2 was designed to determine whether increasing the dose of less active eCG batches could increase the ovarian response. Therefore, groups of prepubertal rats (n = 6/group) were treated with 10 and 30 IU eCG from batch II, while eCG from WHO (10 IU) and saline were control. The evaluation of ovarian response was done similar to Experiment 1. Differences among treatments were analyzed by one-way ANOVA.
Results: Results of RP-HPLC showed differences in the main tR peak profile (tR 26.7) of the standard WHO compared with eCG batches I and II. In experiment 1, the average ovarian weight of rats treated with eCG from WHO (60.0 ± 12.1 mg) was higher (P < .01) than saline (23.1 ± 1.6 mg) and batches I (37.6 ± 1.4 mg) and II (31.0 ± 4.3 mg). In experiment 2, the ovarian weight of rats treated with 30 IU of eCG of batch II (45.7 ± 4.1 mg) was higher (P < .01) than saline (32.6 ± 1.4 mg) and significantly lower (P = .05) than 10 UI of the standard WHO (63.3 ± 8.1 mg).
Conclusion: The low ovarian response to eCG treatments can be related to differences in the physicochemical profile of eCG batches and RP-HPLC is a fast and reliable tool for detecting these differences.
Objective: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the CNS depressant, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Calophylluminophyllum L.
Methods: In the present study CNS depressant activity of C. inophyllum was carried out using hole-cross, hole-board and open-field models in swiss albino mice whereas castor-oil induced diarrhea was used to evaluate antidiarrheal activity. The antipyretic activity was conducted by Brewer’s yeast-induced hyperthermia in mice.
Results: The experimental result indicates that the ethanolic extract of C. inophyllum induced CNS depression significantly (p<0.05) in tested animals and the observed effect was dose dependent comparable to standard drug diazepam. The plant extract at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight showed significant inhibition of 41.66% and 62.19% in castor oil-induced diarrheal method. In yeast-induced pyrexia, the plant extract displayed dose-dependent inhibition as compared to paracetamol.
Conclusion: This study concludes that C. inophyllum leaf has significant CNS depressant, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities which provide scientific support for its medicinal applications.