Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria amongst Inmates of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Calabar, Nigeria

P. C. Inyang-Etoh, S. U. Robbert, I. B. Otu-Bassey, U. G. Etuk

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30491

Aims: To determine the occurrence and prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, influence of gender and duration of illness on the prevalence of this infection among inmates of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Calabar.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional study. Ethical approval was obtained, consent forms were signed by the patients, questionnaires were also administer followed by collection and processing of clean catch mid-stream urine specimens.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Calabar, Nigeria between August, 2010 and September, 2011.

Sample: Urine samples from two hundred (200) inmates and one hundred (100) apparently healthy staff of the same hospital (control subjects).

Methodology: Urine samples were collected in sterile universal bottles and analyzed using standard laboratory diagnostic techniques and cultured using Lee and Williams technique. The modified Kirby-Bauer sensitivity testing technique was used for antimicrobial testing of the isolates.

Results: Significant bacteriuria was established in 60(30%) of the inmates while only 8(8%) of the control subjects had bacteriuria. The difference in infection between the inmates and the control subjects was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Females 40(40%) were more infected than male subjects 20 (20%) but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.052).  Inmates with 16-20 weeks of duration of mental disease had the highest level of infection 4(40%) while inmates with 1-5 weeks of duration of mental disease had the lowest level of infection 12(28%) and this was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The most common urinary pathogens isolated amongst both the test and control subjects were Escherichia coli (34) followed by Proteus spp (14) while Staphylococcus saprophyticus was the least isolated organism.

Conclusion: This work has shown that asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among inmates of Federal Neuropsychiatric hospital, Calabar and the need to put in place strategies to control this infection among this category of patients in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytochemical and in vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Solanum lycopersicum Linn. (Tomato) on Oral Thrush and Human Cariogenic Pathogens

M. Umar, A. Zubairu, H. S. Hamisu, I. B. Mohammed, J. O. Oko, I. M. Abdulkarim, A. Salisu, A. A. Yaya, A. A. Aliko

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/31456

Aims: Study on the evaluation of phytochemical and antimicrobial effects of tomato Solanum lycopersicum (L.) on oral thrush and human cariogenic pathogens was designed to determine the antimicrobial effect of tomato extracts, and to identify the common phytochemical constituents of tomato that may be inhibitory to oral pathogens.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh tomato fruit samples were collected from Samaru market, Zaria in the month of November and December 2015, and analyzed at Microbiology Laboratory, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology Zaria, Kaduna.

Methodology: Cold maceration extraction using methanol and water was adopted. All the extracts were subjected to standard phytochemical qualitative screening for the presence or absence of various primary and secondary metabolites. Antimicrobial susceptibility was carried out by agar-well diffusion technique. The antimicrobial susceptibility test of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit extracts against selected bacterial (Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus subtilis) and yeast (Candida albicans) pathogens capable of causing oral thrush and dental caries was carried out. Ciprofloxacin and Econazole were used as positive controls. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were determined in three concentrations; 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml of each extract. Mean zone of inhibition was used to measure the antimicrobial potential of tomato fruit extracts against the test organisms. The microbial isolates were obtained from the Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Results: Alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, phlabotannins, terpenoids and tannins are present in tomato fruit extract, but, anthraquinones and phlabotannins are absent in methanolic extract. While, the only phytochemical that was not detected in the aqueous extract is anthraquinones. Highest antibacterial activity was recorded on Bacillus subtilis at the concentrations of 100 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for aqueous and methanolic extracts respectively. Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans showed resistance to the various extracts at various concentrations used. The MIC of 100mg/ml was recorded on Bacillus subtilis, whereas all other test organisms showed relative resistance to various concentrations of the extracts used.

Conclusion: Tomato fruit contains phytochemicals that showed promising antimicrobial effect on oral thrush and cariogenic pathogens. The tomato extract recorded antimicrobial effect against Bacillus subtilis with MIC of 100 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was the most active that could compete favourably with the conventional antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) at higher concentrations, which suggests that possible new drug candidates can be harnessed from the tomato fruit against oral thrush and cariogenic pathogens.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Knowledge and Attitude about Reproductive Health and AIDS among Young Girls: A Cross Sectional Study

S. Deivam, D. Manimegalai, N. Prabhusaran, N. Nithya

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30929

Aim: In the current scenario, the understanding of reproductive health, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases among the young adolescent girls are very poor. A large number of girls at the end of their schoolings and early collegiate environment those who are sexually active and exposed to peer pressure are in a vulnerable situation. Thus, this study is aimed to analyze the knowledge and attitude of reproductive health and Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among female adolescents.

Methodology: This study is a cross sectional descriptive analysis that was undertaken in Tiruchirapalli for about a month. Subjects were interviewed face to face using pretested semi-structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. The questionnaire contained information regarding socio-demographic details, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections/ sexually transmitted diseases, including Human immunodeficiency virus/ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, pregnancy and reproduction, prevention strategies and reproductive health services. Privacy and confidentiality were strictly maintained and the analysis was done with percentages.

Results: Among the 150 subjects included, 64% and 36% are from urban and rural areas respectively. Only 11.3% know about internal reproductive organs and 74% know about physiological changes during menstrual cycle. The idea about the virginity was observed among 64%. The knowledge about HIV/ AIDS was observed as 78.7% but among them very few having ideas about STIs and the maximum source of information are from internet than other sources. Most of them (65%) answered that the Human immunodeficiency virus/ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is spreading mainly through sex and they are having very poor knowledge about other mode of transmission. Some girls are feeling shy to answer the questions like condom usages for avoiding pregnancy and process of women getting pregnant.

Conclusion: Providing awareness about the reproductive health and sexually transmitted infections must be started from home itself and the educational institutions have to take necessary steps to arrange awareness camps and clubs to teach adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Antiproliferative Properties and Chemical Composition of the Ethanolic Extract from Leaves and Stems of Lebanese Anacyclus nigellifolius Boiss

Akram Hijazi, Abbas Sabbah, Falah As-Sadi, Sara Zeiter, Hassan Rammal, Mohamad Nasser

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/31197

Objective: The present study aimed to determine the content of the ethanolic extract from leaves and stems of fresh Lebanese Anacyclus nigellifolius Boiss in primary and secondary metabolites and to evaluate its antioxidant and anti-tumor activities on Human lung A549 adenocarcinoma cells. Also, the effect of low doses of chemotherapeutic agent the Cisplatin (CDDP) combined with A. nigellifolius on these cell lines has been studied.

Methods: Phytochemical screening of the extract was done using standard classical tests. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents have been determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau reagent and aluminum chloride method respectively. Also, different classic methods have been used to quantify alkaloids, lipids and ash. On the other hand the antioxidant ability has been estimated using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. In addition, the anti-tumor activity of the extract has been evaluated using Neutral Red assay.

Results: The obtained results of the phytochemical screening showed the existence of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, saponin, glycosides and tannins in ethanol extract. In addition, this extract has showed higher contents in both total phenolic and total flavonoids. On the other hand, the DPPH method showed strong scavenging activity with an IC50=0.178 mg/mL. Moreover, an antiproliferative activity was observed by inhibiting the viability of A549 cell line in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: All these results indicated that A. nigellifolius might be used in the prevention from some diseases related to the oxidative stress.

Open Access Review Article

A Review: Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Lannea welwitschii (Hiern) Engl.

Newman Osafo, Yaw Duah Boakye

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30431

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Lannea welwitschii (Hiern) Engl. (Synonyms: Calesiam welwitschii, Lannea acidissima, Lannea amaniensis), of the family Anacardiaceae is a woody plant that is employed in African traditional medicine to treat various diseases. The study aimed to highlight the folkloric importance, phytochemical composition and reported pharmacological activities of L. welwitschii.

Materials and Methods: Google Scholar, Excerpta Medica database and PubMed Central, were the electronic databases used to search for and filter published research on Lannea welwitschii.

Results: The review comprehensively summarizes relevant data from published literature on the ethno-botanical uses of L. welwitschii within the last five decades. This comprehensive review on the phytochemical, pharmacological as well as the toxicological studies conducted has given an indication of the potential of this plant as phytotherapeutic agent or a source of lead compound(s).

Conclusion: This review might be helpful in identifying future research prospects aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive compounds present in the plant as well as exploring the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of action.