Open Access Original Research Article

Potency and Properties of Hydrazide Compounds That Inhibit the Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Ronald Bartzatt

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30855

Aims: To examine the properties of hydrazide compounds shown to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To identify properties that affect efficiency of bacterial inhibition.

Study Design: Utilizing data from previous studies of compounds that inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis, then statistical and pattern recognition methods are applied to identify interrelationships.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Durham Science Center, University of Nebraska at Omaha, from January 2016 to July 2016.

Methodology: Interrelationships of pharmacological properties were identified by use of various pattern recognition techniques, such as hierarchical cluster analysis and path analysis. Molecular properties and descriptors for all compounds were determined, with additional characteristics such as structure scaffolding and functional group position was accomplished. Statistical analysis, including Pearson r correlation, Mann-Whitney test, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and descriptive statistics were determined. Multiple regression analysis of molecular property values allows prediction of similar compounds. Determination of any numerical outliers was accomplished by applying Grubb’s test.                                                                                                     

Results: Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibiting compounds contained either an aromatic ring or were non-aromatic structures (no ring). There was weak negative correlation of MIC to formula weight. The average formula weight, polar surface area, and Log P, is 183.55 grams/mole, 63.70 A2, and 0.768, respectively. Values of MIC ranged from 14.7 µg/mL to 100 µg/mL. Extent of bacterial inhibition was similar between aromatics to non-aromatics. No outliers were identified by Grubb’s test for all values of MIC taken together. Path analysis showed polar surface area to have most effect on MIC.

Conclusion: The measured level of growth inhibition MIC, showed strong positive relationship to polar surface area, number of hydroxyl and amine groups, oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Two aromatic compounds having a pyridine ring were found to be most similar to isoniazid. Aromatic and non-aromatic compounds showed similar levels of bacterial inhibition overall.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotics Susceptibility Profile and Prevalence of Gram-negative Uropathogens from Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Female Students in a University in Northern Nigeria

P. A. Ezeh, J. C. Igwe, R. O. Bolaji, B. O. Olayinka

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/27929

Asymptomatic bacteriuria among healthy female students is a common occurrence that is frequently ignored and this is attributed to the fact that Pre-menopausal, non-pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria experience no adverse effects and usually will clear their bacteriuria spontaneously. However, these women are more likely to experience subsequent symptomatic UTI than women who do not have asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among female students of Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U), Zaria Main Campus.

Methodology: A total of 400 midstream clean-catch urine samples were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. Organisms were isolated from positive urine samples and the isolates were identified using MicrogenTM GNA-ID kit. Antibiotic susceptibility was carried out on the isolates using the modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test method.

Results: Bacteriological analysis of the urine samples revealed a 16% (63/400) asymptomatic bacteriuria among female students in A.B.U main campus with a total of 148 bacteria isolates. The most prevalent bacteria were Klebsiella species and Acinetobacter species (19.59%), followed by Enterobacter species (17.57%) and Escherichia species (11.49%). A high incidence of resistance to Tetracycline (74%) and Cephalosporin (78%) was observed (Fig. 2).

Conclusion: This study showed that there is an incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria 16% (63) among healthy female students in A.B.U main campus and these isolates show a high resistance to Tetracycline (74%) and Cephalosporin (78%) antibiotics.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hypoxia Inducible Factor on Hypoxia Inducible Gene Expression and Glycolysis

H. Choudhry

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29407

Aim: The effect of both HIF-1 and HIF-2 drastically affect hypoxia responses. Because the relative contributions to hypoxic gene induction and transcriptions are unknown; we aim to evaluate HIF2 target genes, and discuss the secondary gene activations and RNA expression transcripts.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Center of Innovation in Personalized Medicine, King Fahd Center for Medical Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in the year 2015.

Methodology: Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α have been implicated in hypoxia responses. However, till now, their relative contributions to hypoxic gene induction and transcriptions is unknown. Here in this study we evaluate HIF2α target genes, and discuss the secondary gene activations and RNA expression transcripts, specifically glycolytic genes and we believe such information can translate into further hypothesis generating studies that could result in oncology and drug discoveries.

Results: This study showed that, HFI1α stimulates glycolytic GE in both types of cells clearly showing for the HFI1α and HFI2α (or HFI1 and HFI2) have singular aims; however, growing proof distinguishes between both molecules in terms of transcriptional targets and effect on different physiological pathways and tumorigenesis. Moreover, more interest has been paid in order to understand the real effect of HFI2a in order to control/regulate different sides of digestive-tumors; including angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis, metastasis, metabolism and resistance to chemotherapy.

Conclusions: The study shows that HFI2α plays an essential and crucial role as regulator of the malignant phenotype. In the present study, one shows the importance role played by both HFI1 and 2 through tumor growth.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Raw Quail Egg on Intraocular Pressure and Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Subjects

Gladys Ovigue George, Theresa Towechi Onwuchekwa

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29537

Quail egg is a rich source of vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes and amino acids. In addition to these nutritional values, quail egg has been reported to have medicinal properties such as hypotensive property. This study investigated the effect of fresh raw quail egg on intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) of hypertensive and normal subjects in a Nigerian population. One hundred and fifty newly diagnosed and untreated mild to moderate hypertensive subjects selected from the screening exercise carried out at the University of Benin Optometry Clinic, Edo State, Nigeria were recruited for this study. They comprised three groups of fifty subjects each, which were systemic hypertensives, ocular hypertensives and normotensive control subjects. IOP and BP were measured and recorded before and after oral administration of 0.6 ml/kg body weight of raw quail egg to each subject in the three study groups at 30 minutes interval for 90 minutes. Results showed that the maximum mean difference in IOP after oral administration of 0.6 ml/kg body weight of fresh raw quail egg, was 1.85 ±0.12 mmHg and 1.90 ±0.05 mmHg respectively which occurred at 90 minutes in the normotensive right and left eyes, these were statistically significant (p<0.003). The maximum mean difference in BP was 15.67 ±0.08 mmHg which occurred at 60 minutes in the normotensive subjects and it was statistically significant (p=0.000). The hypotensive effect of 0.6 ml/kg body weight of fresh raw quail egg was similar in the three study groups, the peak effect on IOP occurred at 90 minutes and this was preceded by the peak effect on BP which occurred at 60 minutes. The hypotensive effect on IOP may have resulted from the fall in BP. In conclusion, 0.6 ml/kg body weight of raw quail egg has significant hypotensive effect on intraocular pressure and blood pressure compared to water, when administered orally on empty stomach in ocular hypertensives, systemic hypertensives and in the normotensive control groups. Therefore it may be consumed as a form of supplement in the control of high blood pressure and raised intraocular pressure.

Open Access Review Article

N-AcetylCysteine, Hypertonic Saline and Mannitol in Chronic Respiratory Diseases; Efficiency and Safety Considerations

M. Shohrati, A. Taheri, H. Borna, M. Ghanei

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30622

Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRDs) are a group of long-lasting malfunctions of respiratory system. Almost all of them, are not curable and pharmacological interventions are life-time. Because of the chronic use of therapies, safety of the interventions are as important as efficacy of them. According to the guidelines of therapy, inhaled corticosteroids, inhaled beta2-agonists, methylxanthines and phosphodiesterase inhibitors are main current agents for the treatment of CRDs, while there exists a wide range of adverse reactions during long-time use of the drugs. Adding efficient agents with less side effects could be beneficial. In this article we review the efficacy and safety profile of N-AcetylCysteine, Hypertonic Saline and Mannitol on different types of CRDs, and recommend their use in the management of CRDs.

Methods: All information was collected from articles of international medical journals and online databases using key words below. PubMed, Cochrane library, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrial.gov databases were searched for literature published between January 2000 and December 2015.

Conclusion: Adding these agents to first line of therapy for CRDs could be beneficial, while more studies are needed to support their use in clinical setting.