Open Access Case Study

Placenta Percreta and Its Consequences: A Case Report

Fardaus Ara Begum

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30242

Severe hemorrhage during delivery may lead to complications if the urinary bladder is involved in cases of placenta percreta. If placenta percreta and its complications are discovered during delivery, they might be able to be successfully managed. However, in this situation, the mother can lose her uterus to stop the severe bleeding to save the mother’s life. Therefore, early detection of placenta percreta is highly recommended. We present here a case of urinary bladder involvement in placenta percreta, which later led to hydronephrosis. We discuss possible steps to save the uterus for future conception based on findings in our patient.

 

Open Access Short Communication

Hepatoprotective Activity of Nigella sativa Oil against Antitubercular Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Shazia Wahid, Parvaze Ahmad Wani, Nazia Wahid, Neelofar Jan

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28571

Aim: Drug induced hepatotoxicity is a potentially serious adverse effect of the currently used antitubercular chemotherapeutic regimens containing isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin. The aim of this study is to check the hepatoprotective action of Nigella sativa against the antitubercular drugs (Rifampicin and Isoniazed)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, UP, India in the year 2011.

Methodology: Nigella sativa oil was purchased from local market of Lucknow India with assured quality in the month of January, 2011 and study was performed in same year.  Powder form of drugs like Rifampicin and Isoniazid were gifted by Cadila Pharmaceuticals limited, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India whereas 24 Albino rats (Wistar strain) female, weighing 120–150 g, were procured from the Animal House Facility, Integral University, Lucknow. Rats were divided into four groups; first group which is an untreated control was given only standard diet. Second group was treated with Nigella sativa, which served as drug control. Third group were treated with 100 mg of each Isoniazid and Rifampicin/kg of body weight. In fourth group rats were treated with Nigella sativa oil and 100 mg of Isoniazid and Rifampicin/kg of body weight. At the end of dosing, serum was used for estimation of marker enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total and direct bilirubin. Grading of treated and untreated liver was also done.

Results: This study showed that Nigella sativa acted as antiinflammatory and antinecrotic in isoniazid and rifampicin administered drugs in rats. When Nigella sativa was coadminstered with Rifampicin + Isoniazid, it resulted in the decrease of these marker enzymes and maintained these enzymes at normal levels in the serum of rats compared to the only Rifampicin + Isoniazid administered rats thus indicates the hepatoprotective action of Nigella sativa.

Conclusions: Due to above properties of Nigella sativa can be used as hepatoprotective against antitubercular drugs.

 

Open Access Minireview Article

Adverse Drug Reactions and Pharmacovigilance: A Narrative Mini-review of Relevant Literature

Tahani Mohammed Ali Bakhsh, Anas Hakem Al Baloshi, Hassan Mohammed Ali Bakhsh, Dalal S. Al-Dosaari, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30653

Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are known to cause significant morbidity and mortality around the world, and, therefore, need precise terminology and prevention strategies to reduce the global burden on public health and increase safety of patient population. Pharmacovigilance is a powerful tool that detects, assesses and analyses spontaneously reported suspected serious and non-serious ADRs by healthcare professionals and patients, and provides important insights for preventing ADRs in healthcare settings. Poor quality reports and underreporting of ADRs limit the efficiency of pharmacovigilance.

Objective: The aim of this mini-review is to describe precisely definitions of ADRs, adverse drug events (ADEs) and other related terms, their underreporting, pharmacovigilance, and how to optimize ADRs reporting by professionals and patients to pharmacovigilance.

Methods: Electronic searches of relevant databases were conducted using keywords for retrieving relevant articles for inclusion in this study.

Results: Several studies and healthcare organizations have clearly defined ADRs and ADE. Underreporting and poor quality reporting of ADRs remains a global problem. Continuous training of professionals and patients in ADR reporting to PV is one of the best strategies to optimize the spontaneous reporting of ADRs to pharmacovigilance for early signal detection and prevention of ADRs.

Conclusion: The standardized use of ADRs terminology tends to focus attention on efforts aimed at eliminating preventable harm from ADEs. ADRs associated with high economic costs need to be prevented by optimal, better quality reporting of ADRs to pharmacovigilance. The key role of healthcare professionals and patients to report ADR spontaneously need no overemphasis and all stakeholders need continuous training in ADRs and pharmacovigilance.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis B Vaccination Coverage and Knowledge among Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Amal A. Hegazy, Hussain Mohammed Albar, Nusaybah Hussain Albar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30082

Background: Healthcare workers in tertiary hospital are at the risk of exposure and possible transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This infection is a major and important occupational hazard among health care workers (HCWs), it is may be 2–10 times higher than in the general population.

Objectives: To detect the hepatitis B vaccination coverage and the level of knowledge among HCWs.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a representative sample of health care workers randomly selected from a tertiary hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia through stratified random sampling.

Results: vaccination coverage among study group was 63.3%. Complete HBV vaccination was significantly associated with age, duration of work and profession (p=0.002, 0.038 and 0.049, respectively). Our predictors of complete vaccination coverage were age above 30 years (OR= 2.164; 95% CI: 0.678 -3.907), profession [dentists (OR= 2.89; 95% CI: 0.96 -6.71) and lab technicians (OR= 3.09; 95% CI: 0.95-8.00)] and those who had positive perception towards HBV vaccine (OR= 2.52; 95% CI: 1.57- 4.05) and  good knowledge about HBV vaccine (OR= 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14- 2.95).  

Conclusion: HBV vaccination coverage among HCWs was low and they had lack of knowledge although they had good awareness about the vaccine.  So we recommend to increasing the vaccine coverage through training and the educational program must be given to HCWs about HBV vaccine and the necessity of following the HBV vaccine course. Enforcement makes a valid certificate that the HCW can keep for employment. Furthermore a policy of mandatory hepatitis B surface antigen screening is important. Different communication and discussion about beliefs and fear is effective.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Amorphophallus campanulatus Tubers Extract against Paracetamol - Induced Liver Damage in Rats

Surendra Kumar Singh, Nripendra Singh, Ritu Singh

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29419

The present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus (A. campanulatus) tubers against Paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. The administration of extracts at a dose 300 mg/ kg restored the elevated serum enzyme levels to normal. Silymarin was used as a standard reference, exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity. The biochemical and histopathological results proved that Amorphophallus campanulatus tubers had hepatoprotective potency to liver damage due to paracetamol. The increase in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) shows that the plant may possess antioxidant property. It was concluded from the results that methanolic extract possessed more potent hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity than aqueous extract.