Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Entandrophragma angolense, Cola nitida and Gomphrena celosioides against Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

Bamba Abou, F. Yapi Houphouet, Bahi Gnogbo Alexis, Djyh Bernard Nazaire, Djoupoh Agnon Prisca, Gnahoue Goueh

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29269

Aims: The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating the capacity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Entandrophragma angolense, Cola nitida and Gomphrena celosioides to protect the heart of rats.

Study Design: Cardioprotective properties of plant extracts in vivo.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemical-Pharmacodynamics, UFR Biosciences, Felix Houphouet Boigny University of Cocody-Abidjan, vivarium of Higher Normal School and the Institut Pasteur in Abidjan between November 2015 and January 2016.

Methodology: The extractions were carried out by maceration, using a magnetic stirrer for 24 hours, of 100 g of dry plant powder in 2 liters of distilled water for the aqueous extraction or in 2 liters of water / ethanol mixture (30/70 v / v) for ethanol extraction. Cardioprotective properties of the extracts (200 and 500 mg/kg) were assessed relative to that of resveratrol (25 mg / kg) against doxorubicin-induced intoxication of 8mg/kg body weight.

Results: The results showed that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Entandrophragma angolense Cola nitida and Gomphrena celosioides significantly attenuate (p ˂0.05) the effect of doxorubicin on biochemical parameters. Indeed, extracts significantly reduce (p ˂0.05) serum level of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine kinase (CK-MB), cholesterols, triglycerides and significantly increase (p ˂0.05) serum level of HDL cholesterol. The extracts also dampen the weight loss caused by doxorubicin. The relative weight of the heart remained statistically the same (p > 0.05) regardless of the treatment compared to the control rat.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the studied extracts all have cardioprotective properties. This protective property would be higher at a dose of 500 mg/kg. However ethanolic extract of Entandrophragma angolense would have a cardioprotective activity more interesting at 500 mg/kg, comparable to that of resveratrol.


Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Unstable Vaterite Polymorph of Hollow Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles and Encapsulation of the Anticancer Drug Cisplatin

S. P. Dunuweera, R. M. G. Rajapakse

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29784

Cisplatin is the first generation platinum coordination complex-based anticancer drug developed to treat many different types of cancers. However, cisplatin is associated with numerous side effects. Most of these side effects could be minimized if cisplatin can be encapsulated in a suitable host material for its slow-release only at the cancer cells. In this research, we developed a convenient and simple wet chemical route to synthesize spherical nanoparticles of the vaterite polymorph of calcium carbonate (CCNP) with hollow and porous structures. This is achieved by the soft molecular template based synthesis of vaterite using the template obtained from hydrogen bonded ethylene glycol-water network structures. In these templates, vaterite is synthesized from calcium acetate and sodium hydrogen orthophosphate in the aqueous dispersion. Cisplatin is then encapsulated within these nanoparticles and the materials synthesized are well characterized by several independent analytical methods. The presence of cisplatin in its proper molecular form within the confined environment of vaterite is proven. Taking the advantage of the acidity of cancerous cells, these nanoparticles can be selectively and slowly dissolved only within cancerous cells thus releasing the drug only to the cancerous cells. This would minimize the adverse effects of cisplatin to healthy normal cells while increasing the bioavailability and efficacy of the drug and reducing its dosage.




Open Access Original Research Article

The Practice of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Caesarean Delivery among Obtetricians and Trainee Obstetricians in Nigeria

A. E. Ogbe, A. S. Anzaku, I. G. Ogbu, B. O. Okwaraoha

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/30084

Aims: Antibiotic prophylaxis is a recognized measure for preventing post-operative infection after Caesarean delivery and it is expedient that Obstetricians be aware and practice recommended regimen. This study aimed at ascertaining the knowledge and practice of antibiotic prophylaxis, and reason(s) behind any deviation from established standard among Nigerian Obstetricians.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the annual conference of the Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held in November, 2015 at Abuja, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 191 consecutive residents and consultant Obstetricians returned correctly filled questionnaires during the survey carried out at the annual conference of the Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) held in November, 2015. The respondent’s demographic characteristics, practice of prophylactic antibiotics, awareness of evidenced-based regimen and reason for respondent’s regimen were obtained. The data was analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.4 (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA).

Results: Most of the respondents were consultants [153(80.1%)], and all the respondents [191(100%)] were aware of antibiotic prophylaxis during Caesarean delivery. Nevertheless, only 124 knew about an evidence-based regimen, out of which 30(24.2%) practice it, while 94(75.8%) did not for fear of increased risk of post-operative sepsis that might result from poor aseptic techniques in the theatre.

Conclusion: Despite high awareness, there is non-conformity in observance of standard practice of antibiotic prophylaxis among Nigerian resident and consultant Obstetricians during Caesarean section.


Open Access Original Research Article

Education Level is Associated with Specific N200 and P300 Profiles Reflecting Higher Cognitive Functioning

Rumaisa Abu Hasan, Faruque Reza, Tahamina Begum

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29783

Background: While different colors are commonly used during neuropsychological assessments, there is a general lack of information about the influence of education on color processing, which could affect the results of neuropsychological testing. Higher education is directly related to higher cognitive functions. Therefore, we investigated educational influences on color processing in different tasks using reaction times (RTs) in an event-related potential (ERP) study.

Methods: A 128-sensor net was used for the ERP study with participants from low (G1), medium (G2) and high (G3) educational groups (n=17 per group). Participants were asked by pressing button to indicate whether they ‘liked’ or ‘disliked’ colors displayed to them for consideration in the RT analysis. A 10-20 system (19 electrode channels) was used to analyze the amplitudes and latencies of the N200 and P300 ERP components.

Results: The mean differences for the like and dislike choices were calculated in terms of the amplitudes and latencies of the both components. RTs were significantly shortest in G3, then G2, and G1 reflected significantly longer RTs. Seven (out of 19) electrode locations clearly expressed N200 and P300 components. The G3 evoked the highest amplitudes (significant at T6) of both components at most of the electrode locations. The next highest amplitudes were in G2 and then G1. There was a trend toward the shortest latencies of both components being represented in G3, with G1 holding the longest latencies at most electrode sites, but this did not quite reach significance.

Conclusion: Faster RTs, higher amplitudes and shorter latencies of the N200 and P300 ERP components in G3 suggest that higher education improves attention, enables faster decision-making and facilitates cognitive function that is important for improved quality of life.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Isolated from the Environment of two Tertiary Hospitals in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria

Elizabeth N. Mbim, Clement I. Mboto, Uwem O. Edet

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29316

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates obtained from the environment of two hospitals (General hospital – GH and infectious disease hospital – IDH).

Methods: A total of 240 swabs and air samples were collected from two hospitals with 20 samples each from wards, pharmacies, blood banks, theatres, laboratories and intensive care units. Bacterial isolates were obtained from these samples using standard microbiological techniques. Identified isolates were then subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations determination. The antibiotics used in this study were gentamycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ceporex, ciprofloxacin, reflacine, ampicillin,levofloxacin, ampicillin+cloxacillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole+ trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin and ceftazidime. Mean counts were analysed using student t-test and simple descriptive statistics.

Results: A total mean count of 2940cfu was recorded from both hospitals of which 1949cfu and 991cfu were obtained from GH and IDH, respectively. A comparism of the mean counts for both hospitals unit by unit showed that pharmacy unit alone was significant (p =0.01). A total of 130 bacteria isolates were recovered in this study of which 80(61.5%) and 50(38.5%) were isolated from GH and IDH, respectively. In GH, the lowest MIC and MBC of 470 and 230mg/ml was recorded by P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and Proteus species against ciprofloxacin while other isolates exhibited moderate resistance to this antibiotic. In IDH, the lowest MIC and MBC were recorded by P. aeruginosa, C. freundii, K. pneumoniae and S. marcesens against ampicillin while lowest MIC and MBC was recorded by S. aureus against cefoxitin.

Conclusion: The findings in this study reveal that airborne sources and inanimate surfaces of hospitals are an important reservoir of multidrug resistant nosocomial pathogens.