Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Novel, Rapid and Validated HPTLC Protocol for the Quantitative Estimation of Marrubiin from the Extract of Marrubium vulgare Linn

A. Nanda, V. Mittal

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29840

Aim: To develop a novel, simple, precise and rapid HPTLC protocol for the analysis of marrubiin (a furan labdane diterpene) in herbal extracts and formulations.

Methodology: The marrubiin can be quantified by performing the HPTLC on silica gel F254 plates using toluene: ethyl acetate: acetic acid (5:4:1) as mobile phase.  The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines.

Results: The protocol was found to be linear in the concentration range of 40-400 ng/spot and simultaneous comparison of Rf (0.47 ± 0.05) and overlapping UV spectra of samples confirm the specificity of the method. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of biomarker were found to be 15 and 40 ng by the selected method. The low value of % relative standard deviation (less than 2) in peak area on analyzing the sample on same and different days ensures the precision of the developed method. Further the recovery of more than 95% of the marrubiin affirms the accuracy of developed analytical method.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the developed protocol could be beneficial for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the marrubiin in herbal extracts and formulations.


Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Factors Associated with Breast Cancer in Gaza Strip - Palestine: A Hospital Based Study

Jehad H. El-Hissi, Dayana M. El-Batrokh, Ihab M. Al-Masri, Mazen A. El-Sakka, Adham I. Ahmed

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24778

Aim: To reveal the relationship between nutritional factors and dietary behavior and the occurrence of breast cancer in Gaza Strip.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-control study that consisted of 150 participants, conducted in Al-shifa hospital at Gaza Strip. A seven-day food frequency questionnaire, Anthropometric, Lipid profile (Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and Triglyceride) and CBC tests were conducted for cases and controls.  SPSS software was used to analyze obtained data.

Results: The study reveals that 72% of Breast cancer patients were >45 years old compared to 53.3% of controls with the same age. 20% of Breast cancer patients have family history compared to 3% of control group. The mean of menarche and marital age for breast cancer was higher in control. Fertility rates among cases were lower than in control. The mean of parity for breast cancer was 6.83 compare to 6.01 of control. Breastfeeding and duration among controls was significantly higher than breast cancer patients. Pills intake and injection hormones among breast cancer patients were significantly higher than in controls. There are significant differences in diet behavior among cases and control; 32.0% of case eat overcooked meat compare with 21.3% of controls; 69.3% of cases eat skinned chicken compare with 44.0% controls; 78.7% of breast cancer patients were eating whole fat dairy product compare to 45.3% of controls. 58.7% of breast cancer patients who have eaten vegetables and fruits daily compare to 88% of controls; about 56% of breast cancer drink less than one liter of water per day compare to 29.3% of controls.

Conclusion: The study concluded that breast cancer patients are less physically active, more obese, consume more oil and fat, eat more red meat, consume fruit and vegetable less frequently and are more exposed to stress.


Open Access Original Research Article

Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Improves Glucose Tolerance and Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Diabetic Rats

Adel H. Saad, Hanaa M. Ibrahim, Walaa H. Nazmy, Azza Hussein

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29700

Aims: Obesity is a worldwide problem. It is considered to be a major risk factor for many systemic diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), cardiovascular, renal and orthopedic diseases. Recent evidence has underscored the emerging role of the heme oxygenase system in many diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of induction of the HO system by hemin on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese diabetic albino rats as an experimental model of T2D.

Methodology: 18 male albino rats were divided into three groups: 1- Control group: fed standard pellet chow diet and injected with the vehicle. 2- T2D group: animals were fed high fat diet (HFD) and received single i.p. injection of STZ (35 mg/kg) for induction of diabetes. 3- T2D+Hemin treated group: animals were fed HFD Then, animals received single i.p. injection of STZ (35 mg/kg) for induction of T2D. Hemin (15 mg/kg i.p.) was given twice weekly for 4 weeks after induction of diabetes. Pancreatic tissues and serum were collected and evaluated by Histopathological and biochemical assay for histopatological lesions and biochemical parameters (blood glucose level, insulin level and sensitivity, hemoxygenase activity, lipid peroxides, TNF-α and total anti-oxidant capacity).

Results: Pancreatic tissues of diabetic group show severe inflammation with loss of pancreatic architecture, interstitial edema, and marked vacuolization. Hemin therapy preserves pancreatic architecture and reduced the inflammatory lesions and greatly reduced vacuolization in diabetic rats. Hemin treatment decreased the elevated glucose level in diabetic rats from 37.75±2.37 to 22.23±1.69 (mmol/L), lipid peroxides decreased from 22.23±1.69 to1.85±0.24 (µmol/L), TNF- α decreased from 58.95±5.29 to 35.17±3.52 (pg/ml). On the hand hemin treatment increased the total antioxidant activity in diabetic rats from 22.38±2.75 to 70.33±5.29 (µm/mg) and increased insulin level from 3.16±0.48 in diabetic group to 9.21±0.8 (µU/L), hemin treatment also enhanced insulin sensitivity.

Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that treatment with hemin induced protection against obesity induced type 2 diabetes most probably by its antioxidant effect and its effect on insulin production and insulin sensitivity. These findings are likely to motivate further research and indicate new approaches for treatment of diabetes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritive Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod

H. L. Raghavendra, T. R. Prashith Kekuda, B. N. Vijayananda, Dereje Duressa, Tifsehit Solomon

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29987

Aims: The present study was carried out to determine nutritive composition and to screen antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was performed at Wollega University, Ethiopia, BGK Life Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Bagalkot and Department of Microbiology, S.R.N.M.N College of Applied Sciences, Karnataka, India between May-2016 to July-2016.

Methodology: The powdered leaf material was subjected for determination of various proximate parameters namely moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude fat, protein and carbohydrate content. Mineral analysis was carried out using ICP-OES technique. For determining antimicrobial activity, extraction of shade dried and powdered leaf material was carried out by maceration process. Antibacterial activity of extract was assessed against a panel of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by Agar well diffusion assay. Antifungal activity was tested against three phytopathogenic fungi by Poisoned food technique.

Results: Leaf material of M. stenopetala was found to contain appreciable quantity of carbohydrates (42.20%), crude fibre (07.34%) and protein (26.33%) while the crude fat (05.25%) content was lesser. Among minor elements, the iron content was found to be 962.50 ppm and nickel content was found to be 2.89 ppm. In case of major elements, potassium (18426.75 ppm) content was found to be highest while the content of sodium (1519.68) was less when compared with other major elements. Extract caused dose dependent inhibition of test bacteria with marked activity against Gram positive bacteria. Extract was not effective against Ralstonia solanacearum and showed no activity when tested up to 50 mg/ml. A dose dependent suppression of mycelial growth of test fungi was observed in plates poisoned with different concentration of extract.

Conclusion: The leaf of M. stenopetala is a good source of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals needed for normal physiology of the body and hence, the leaves can be used as food or feed supplement to enhance growth and health. The plant can be used against infectious microorganisms as the extract exhibited marked antibacterial and antifungal activity.


Open Access Review Article

Current and Future Strategies for AD Therapy

Agbo John, Omale O. Francis, Hassan D. Mhya, Awodele Olufunsho

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28271

Alzheimer’s disease is an insidious disease of the brain. It is a degenerative and intractable neurological disorder that causes deterioration of memory, judgment, and reasoning in the elderly. About 46.8 million people worldwide are suffering from AD; prevalence is expected to affect 131.5 million by 2050. It is also characterized by myriad of syndrome, diverse theories and multi-factorial causes. It is a syndrome rather than a disease. Pathological hallmarks include; deposition of GPR3 protein in the brain which augment toxic amyloid plaques, abnormal deposition of tau proteins in neurons and its hyperphosphorylation  into NFTs, increased levels of toxic amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers, neuronal and vascular death due to oxidative stress, inflammation or excessive action of the brain’s immune cells-glial, among others. Currently there is no cure for it and much of the treatments have only been able to delay the progression of the disease. However, this paper attempt to provide update information on available pharmacological regimens and their effectiveness in curtailing AD as well as future therapeutic target.