Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Salicylic Acid on the Growth of HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells Line

Ibrahim Mohammed, Mohammed Ozovehe Musa, Abdu Umar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29034

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women in the world, 527,000 new cases were reported and over 250,000 deaths were reported each year. The major risk factor of cervical cancer is infection with HPV. The aim of our research is to determine the effect of Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) and Salicylic Acid on cervical cancer cells in vitro using HeLa cervical cancer cells line, also to determine the mechanism by which these drugs can kill cervical cancer cells through apoptosis, also to find the possibility of using ASA and SA as cervical cancer drugs.

Materials and Methods: Cell viability was determined using cell titre blue from 1,000,000 to 31,250 cells per ml on HeLa. Dose response for the drugs was carried out at concentrations from 0-20 mM incubated at time intervals 24, 48 and 72 hrs incubation. A 10 mM concentration of ASA and SA were used to determine the caspase activity using caspaseglo for the period of 0-24 hrs incubations. Western blot was carried out using active anti- caspase3 antibody for caspase3 proteins.

Results and Conclusion: The cell viability shows the absorbance increases as the number of cells increases. There is effectiveness of viability inhibition from 15 mM to 20 mM concentration for 24, 48 and 72 hrs incubation on dose response. There is much higher increase in caspase activities from 8 hrs to 16 hrs on both drugs, with much more effect with SA than ASA. Western blot shows no expression of protein for caspase3, but shows expression using β actin as a housekeeping gene. ASA and SA can induce apoptosis and bring about cell death on cervical cancer; therefore these drugs can be good drugs for the treatment of cervical cancer.


Open Access Original Research Article

Oxytocin Hormone Administration Attenuates Cardiac Oxidative Injury and Inflammation in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

Walaa `Hassan Nazmy, Hanaa M. Ibrahim, Adel Hussein Saad, Alaa El Din R. Abdel Rheim

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28932

Aims: Oxytocin (OT) hormone has been recently recognized as a cardiovascular hormone with diverse regulatory roles. The present study examined the potential protective effect of exogenous OT administration on hypercholesterolemia-induced injury in rat heart and possible mechanisms involved.

Methodology: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in adult male albino rats fed high cholesterol diet 2% either with or without daily subcutaneous injection of OT (1.6 µg/kg body weight/day) for 8 weeks. Serum parameters included; Serum lipid profile, C-reactive protein, cardiac injury markers including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels were measured. Cardiac tissue parameters included malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents.

Results: Hypercholesterolemic rats showed marked dyslipidemia, significantly high serum levels of C-reactive protein, LDH and CK. Cardiac tissue samples showed enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation in terms of increased MDA and TNF-α alongside decreased TAC and NO contents. OT–treated animals exhibited significantly lower serum C-reactive protein, LDH and CK levels but without significant change in serum lipids. Cardiac tissue samples showed significantly lower MDA and TNF-α alongside significantly higher TAC and NO contents.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate a potent cardioprotective effect of OT hormone against hypercholesterolemia-induced cardiac injury probably via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Telfairia occidentalis Leave Extracts in the Amelioration of Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Injuries and Oxidative Damage in Rats

Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Abiodun Bukunmi Aborisade, Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola Sinbad Olurunnisola

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29199

Aims: The study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of Telfairia occidentalis (T. occidentalis) extracts in the attenuation of CCl4-mediated oxidative stress.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria, between June 2014 and December 2015.

Methodology: Twenty-four male wistar albino rats (180-220 g) were divided into four groups (1-4) of six rats each. In group 1 the rats received only water, group 2 received single dose of equal mixture of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and olive oil (50%, v/v, 1.25 mL/kg i.p.), while animals in group 3 and 4 received CCl4 + 50 mg/kg of T. occidentalis and CCl4 + 100 mg/kg of T. occidentalis respectively. The antioxidant activity of T. occidentalis was evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay.

Results: Our results showed that CCl4 induction elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels significantly (P<0.05) while activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were significant (P<0.05) reduced. However, administering T. occidentalis extract at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg caused reversal of the effects significantly. T. occidentalis was found to contain high level of total phenolic content (34.65 mg/g in GAE/g dried weight). The implication of these results is that                   T. occidentalis may be useful in the management of oxidative stress-related organ injuries.

Conclusion: The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities observed in this study could be due to the ability of phenolic compounds constituents of T. occidentalis which are able to absorb, neutralize and quench free radicals.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of a Hydro-ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis on Systemic Inflammation and Cachexia in an Allergic Asthma Model

Jones Ofori-Amoah, George Asumeng Koffuor, Felix Amissah, George Owusu, Aaron Opoku Antwi, Verner Ndudiri Orish

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29032

Background: Chronic allergic lung diseases, such as allergic asthma, are often marked by increased systemic inflammatory responses and cachexia co-morbidities.

Objectives: The study aimed at evaluating the systemic anti-inflammatory and anti-cachectic properties of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis (SDE) in an ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma model.

Methodology: Allergic asthma was induced by challenging OVA-sensitized guinea-pigs intranasal with 1% ovalbumin. Levels of C-reactive proteins in animal serum, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and erythrocyte levels, as well as the total and differential blood cell counts were determined (as measures of systemic inflammation) for blood samples obtained from OVA-induced allergic animals treated with 2 ml/kg normal saline, 10 mg/kg salbutamol, 10 mg/kg prednisolone, and 50, 100 or 250 mg/kg of the plant extract. Changes in body weights for each treatment regime were also measured over the period.

Results: SDE showed a dose-dependent reduction (p ≤ 0.001) in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, an increase (p ≤ 0.05) in the body weights of OVA-induced allergic animals, and improved significantly (p ≤ 0.001) levels of red blood cells after treatment. However, total and differential white blood cells were significantly elevated (p ≤ 0.05) after the OVA-induced asthma. Treatments with the plant extract and prednisolone significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) elevated white blood cells and its differentials, as well as elevated serum C-reactive proteins (> 12.0 but ≤ 24.0 ± 1.0 mg/l) to within normal levels in OVA-induced allergic guinea-pigs.

Conclusion: The hydro-ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis has significant systemic anti-inflammatory properties, and ameliorative effect on pulmonary cachexia. This makes it a possible remedy for allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Trypanostatic Effect of Millet-garlic Blended Diet on Rats Infected with T. b. brucei

M. H. Garba, A. Y. Kabir, A. Abubakar, A. Abdul Qadir, Y. Garba, F. M. Madaki, L. M. Hafsa, S. Abubakar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26318

Aim: The nutraceutic effect of millet-garlic blend against trypanosomiasis in Trypanosoma brucei brucei challenged rats was investigated in this study.

Experimental Design: The experimental rats were grouped into A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and J in a complete randomised clinical trial design. Each group consists of three (3) rats randomly assigned.

Place and Duration of the Study: The research work was conducted in the Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria. The four weeks feeding trial aspect of the work was carried out in the Biochemistry and Nutrition laboratory while the parasitological aspect was conducted in the veterinary clinic of the department.

Methodology: Albino Wister rats were randomly grouped into ten (10) treatments consisting of three (3) rats in each treatment (i.e A-J). Graded level of inclusion of blended millet- garlic at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% level was fed to treatments A-E. Group F, served as the control group, hence, were fed the conventional feed only. To group G, pulverised millet only (without garlic added to it) was fed to it, while group H, were fed with conventional feed supplemented with garlic only. Another group that was fed with the supplemented diet at the average inclusion rate of 15% for 3 days prior to infection forms group I. In the 10th group (i.e. J), the feeding formular was similar to  group I but the feeding period prior to infection was extended to 7 days. Thereafter, parasitaemia was monitored at two days interval. In addition, the effects of non prophylactic feeding (at 25% inclusion) and seven days prophylactic feeding (at 12.5% inclusion) of the experimental diet on the haematological parameters of experimental rats was also investigated in  separate groups.

Results: While all the groups non-prophylactically fed the experimental diet at various inclusion level died before the 21st day into experiment, the group fed the supplemented diet prophylactically for three (3) days died on the 27th day into the experiment. Interestingly, the group fed prophylactically for seven days at 12.5% level of inclusion level exhibited trypanostatic activity, A significant difference (P = 0.05) in the haematological parameters between the group prophylactically fed the millet-garlic blend and the group on non-prophylactic treatment was also observed.

Conclusion: This study demonstrate the efficacy of prophylactic feeding of millet-garlic blend as a trypanostatic agent against proliferation of the parasites in the experimental animals and as a haematopoietic agent.