Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Evaluation, Free Radical Scavenging Activities and Antimicrobial Evaluation of the Methanolic Extracts of Corn Silk (Zea mays)

Stella A. Emmanuel, Olutayo Olajide, Salisu Abubakar, Saheed O. Akiode, Godwin Etuk-Udo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28530

Corn silk is thought to possess medicinal properties according to Nigerian folklore. This study was undertaken to appraise its phytochemical constituents and anti-microbial activities. Data obtained revealed that alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, glycosides and cardiac glycosides were detected in the fresh mature and dried mature samples (FMCSS and DMCSS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH inhibition method. The crude extract of the FMCSS exhibited a stronger free radical scavenging activity than that of the DMCSS (76.14: 73.54, 75.76: 68.23, 68.18: 61.46 and 64.18: 41.58% for the fresh versus the dried samples at 5, 3, 2 and 1 mg/ml concentrations). Results showed that when tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsciella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Salmonella thypi, the zones of inhibition obtained ranged from 10 to 16 mm for the fresh samples and between 12 to 20 mm for the dried samples. Mineral analysis revealed the presence of calcium (0.1869: 0.0610 mg/g), iron (0.005: 0 mg/g), magnesium (0.1939: 0.0934 mg/g), copper (0.0073: 0.0094 mg/g), manganese (0.0109: 0.0027 mg/g) and zinc (0.0165: 0.0146 mg/g) in the dried immature/mature silk. The results obtained suggested that the DMCSS sample studied plant possess better anti-bacterial activity with the major activity tailored to the phyto-constituents. GCMS analysis of the hexane extract of the silk showed the presences of straight chain alkanes and poly unsaturated methyl esters.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Age in Prosthesis-patient Mismatch on Long-term Survival after Aortic Valve Replacement: in-vitro versus in-vivo Values

Alexander Manché, Aaron A. Casha, Liberato Camilleri

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28381

Aim: We studied the effect of age on survival in the setting of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM).

Study Design: Retrospective single surgeon practice.

Place and Duration of Study: Cardiothoracic department, Mater Dei Hospital Malta, between January 1995 and December 2014.

Methodology: 572 consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) were divided into four age groups and followed up for a maximum of 20 years (mean 8.2). Date of death was derived from the National Statistics Office. PPM was classified according to defined criteria, and calculated according to manufacturers’ tables (in-vitro) and from in-vivo values published by independent researchers. The impact of age and PPM on long-term survival was studied using the Cox proportional hazard model.

Results: Mean in-vitro derived indexed effective orifice area (EOAi) was significantly higher than in-vivo EOAi (1.04±0.22 vs 0.93±0.16, p=0.000) and incidence of PPM was lower using in-vitro criteria (moderate 18.0% vs 24.1%, p=0.01, severe 1.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.008). For patients with mismatch the odds of dying (in-vitro vs in-vivo) was increased by 9.2% vs 38.1%, with moderate PPM 7.6% vs 30.9%, and with severe PPM 85.7% vs 69.7%. The odds of dying increased with age (by 7-8% for every year) and PPM severity. Age was a significant predictor of survival but PPM was not. For every 0.1unit increase in EOAi the risk of dying decreased by 8.0% (in-vitro) and 8.7% (in-vivo).

Conclusion: Age is a significant predictor of survival times, with the odds of dying increasing by about 7% for every additional year. Long-term survival hazard was increased by PPM but the effect was not significant. When EOAi is analysed as a continuous variable it significantly effects survival.


Open Access Original Research Article

Proactive Nursing Care is the Key to Successful Day Case Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy at a Rural Hospital

Aemelia Melloy, Ria De Rouw, Arkadiusz Peter Wysocki

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/29117

Aim: Day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy is achievable but in most hospitals it is not routine. We describe our experience with day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a rural Queensland hospital.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of consecutive adult patients with uncomplicated cholelithiasis who underwent day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy by the one surgeon.

Results: 75% of patients were women with a mean age of 38 years and ASA class 2. The nurse in Post Anaesthesia Care Unit was pivotal in enabling 48 out of 51 patients to be discharged home on the day of surgery. All operations were performed by the one surgeon. Anaesthesia was not protocoled.

Conclusion: While good patient selection, optimized anaesthesia and sound surgical techniques are recognised as prerequisites for day case surgery, the role of the nurse in the Post Anaesthesia Care Unit is pivotal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Two Standardizations Used in Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori

Simone Ulrich Picoli, Bruna Rafaella Becker, Luiz Edmundo Mazzoleni, Erli Neuhauss, João Carlos Prolla

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28658

Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that is widespread in the world's population and constitutes a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. One possible cause of treatment failure is antimicrobial resistance, indicating the importance of susceptibility testing.

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the Helicobacter pylori susceptibility results obtained by two international standardization indicating the more reliable methodology to be used by laboratories.

Study Design: Transversal study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gastroeterology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (Brazil), between January 2014 and July 2014.

Methodology: 50 isolates of Helicobacter pylori stored at -80°C were used in the execution of the susceptibility tests preconized by the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC), British origin, and CDS Method of Australian origin.

Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ​​for amoxicillin and clarithromycin in both standardizations were equivalents (κ=1.0000; p<0.001). However, the sensitivity of the British methodology was lowest (Sensitivity=85%). The Australian technique promoted more intense growth of H. pylori on the agar surface, allowing a more accurate reading of the inhibition zones of antibiotics (MIC).

Conclusion: Thus, CDS Method offered greater sensitivity and clarity in the interpretation of MIC in only three days of incubation.


Open Access Review Article

Urinary Tract Infections in Adult Women: Review

Sundus Fadhil Hantoosh, Ibtisam Jasim Sodani, Dheaa Sh. Zageer

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28241

Urinary tract infections occur more frequently in women than in men. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common causatives of urinary tract infections in women. The severity of urinary tract infection is determined   by the innate defense mechanisms of the host and by the virulence of the infecting agents. There are factors that make females prone to urinary tract infections as anatomical structure, alterations in vaginal flora, use of indwelling catheters, sexual activity, and advance in age, genetic factors, pregnancy, dysfunctional voiding and diabetes mellitus. Acute phase response alters the concentrations of a number of proteins. A series of changes in lipid metabolism occurs during acute phase response. As a result, plasma triglycerides (TG) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) levels increase, while high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels decrease. Patients with urinary tract infections have significant increase of blood urea with slight increase in serum creatinin.